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    Management and Operations


    Management refers to the process of managing all the internal as well as external activities that are performed by an organisation in order to execute all the operations. For all the organisations, its very important to formulate effective strategies so that business can be operated successfully. Managers and leaders are mainly responsible for the proper execution of the business. Organisation chosen for this report is Amazon, which is an online shopping site for different kinds of products. It is mainly based in Seattle, Washington and founded in year 1994 by Jeff Bezos. Various topics have been discussed under this report like roles and characteristics of leader and manager, the way in which role of leader and function of the manager will be applied in different situational context, application of theories and model of approaches of leadership and key approaches of operations management.

    Importance and value of operation management in achieving business objectives and factors in business environment that may affect operational management and decision making of leader and managers have also been discussed under this report.

    Activity 1

    P1 Comparison of roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager


    The person who is responsible to lead a group of individuals so that they can work more productively. Main responsibility of a leader is to motivate and influence the subordinates because this will help to complete all the tasks in given time limit.


    Individuals who are concerned with the proper management of an organisation. They are mainly focused with planning, controlling, organising and staffing related functions.

     There are various difference in the roles and characteristics of managers and leader of Amazon. All of them are as follows:The roles of managers and leaders are:-



    Motivator: In Amazon the leaders play a vital role of motivator as they are required to motivate all the employees so that their work quality can be enhanced.

    Administrator: Managers of Amazon are responsible to administer all the activities that are performed by the employees.

    Representative: Leaders are also known as a representative of an organisation as they manage all the activities so that a positive image can be established.

    Conflict handler: All the conflicts that may take place among workers and top executives are handled by the managers.

    Communicator: Leaders in Amazon are responsible to communicate with all the employees in appropriate manner so that they can share issues regarding their job.

    Negotiator: Managers of Amazon play a role of negotiator as they negotiate prices with customers and suppliers.

    Inspirer: The leaders in Amazon play a vital role of inspirer in which they inspire the team members to work more productively by supporting and cooperating with them.

    Resource allocator: Managers allot resources to all the functional departments of the organisation.

    Differences between qualities of managers and leaders:



    Leaders of Amazon have quality of empowering as they are focused with the empowerment of the staff members.

    Managers have a quality of solving problems that may affect the organisational capability of performing activities.

    Passion is the main quality which is required for the leaders because all the team members will follow them to complete the allotted tasks.

    Effective decision making is another quality of managers of Amazon as they formulate appropriate decision in critical situations.

    Leaders in Amazon have a quality of equality in which they are liable to treat all the subordinates equally.

    Managers of Amazon have capability to analyse the appropriateness of the techniques that are used by the organisation in order to increase profits.

    All the leaders in Amazon have a specific characteristic which is honesty as they have to be honest with their subordinates to gain their trust.

    Managers need to be patience as they have to handle various problems like conflicts, lack of employees engagement etc.

    P2 Role of leader and the function of a manager in critical situation

    There may various critical situation arise in Amazon such as shortage of resources, negative publicity about the company, unsuccessful process, poor team performance etc. The situation that has arisen here is conflict resolution.

    Role of a leader:


    A leader should use his expertise ability to resolve a conflict. Autocratic leadership style can be adopted by leader in the situations where decisions are required to be made quickly. In rest of the situations, the leader can collect input and then make a decision.


    The issues behind the conflict should be assessed quickly to take prompt actions. Leaders involves team members for resolving the problems in order to make the members capable of resolving conflicts on their own.


    A leader should build compromising skills in the team members. Leaders should make the members accept facts when necessary rather than arguing illogically. This will resolve the conflict rapidly.


    A leader should provide guidance to members to make them do their work effectively without delegating it to a fellow member.


    In cases of controversial issues, the leader can transfer the case to a outside party for resolution. A third party can resolve the conflict by making the members negotiates and understand the roots of the problem.

    Functions of manager:

    Establish facts:

    The first step is to collect the facts of the issue. A manager should establish the facts that are important and can be collected within the specified time. On the basis of facts, a decision by the manager should be taken.

    Ask lots of questions:

    The manager should prepare a list of questions to be asked to the members involved in the conflict. The questions can be asked from the members who were not involved in order to have a clear picture of the matter.

    Actively listen:

    The manager should listen to the statements carefully. Jumping into a conclusion without listening will create more problems. After hearing a correct decision can be taken to resolve the conflict.

    Pre-judgement to be avoided: A manager should not have a pre-judgement ready as this will influence his decision.

    Aim for resolution:

    The manager should always target to resolve conflicts. Resolution is not always possible but the manager should try to resolve to the possible extent.

    Selection of approach:

    Every situation is different therefore one approach can not be applied in every situation. Manager should choose the approach accordingly.

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    P3 Different theories and models of approach containing situational leadership and contingency

    Successful cooperation leads functions of organisations in right direction to get desired objectives and aim of organisation. Amazon is one of the successful organisation which is confident and stable with its effective leadership tactics and management structure. The concept of leadership is significant itself to correlate objectives of business among team members and employees of organisation. Type of leadership theories are defined as follows that are essential in terms of managing the operations of Amazon.

    Situational leadership

    This leadership assess the possible outcomes and situations regarding the changes for particular scenarios like cooperation process and staff engagement process at work place. There is a particular understanding and recognition required in organisation with proper analysis and justification to clear the situation. This leadership style is flexible in itself that helps in absorbing the unconditional challenges in competitive advantages with in organisation. The leadership management and exhibits that elaboration with creative challenges with creative objectives in terms of carrying out the desired objectives for better change and development. This theory can be implemented with in organisation by analysing the situational case and consideration of business with in and outside the organisation. The flexibility is the main virtue that makes this leadership style viable to implement with in organisation.

    Strength: Its flexible, directing, participating and delegating nature is the main strength of this leadership style that keep align business to collaborate the changes in effective and viable manner.   

    Weakness: There are some contingent scenarios and uncertain situations occurs with in organisation due to external factors that makes ineffective this leadership style. There is a lack of clear visibility of net outcome found in this leadership style that affect the leadership theory.

    System leadership

    This leadership style considered helps to get outcomes more productively in terms of determining the behaviours of leaders and managers. Effective business system helps in consolidating the changes with practical based scenario. This theory can be implemented in Amazon by creating management and organisational experts  for enhancing the productivity of business.

    Strength:It remain constant with in organisation at every level. The formation of assigning roles and liabilities do not change with the changes in frequencies and fractions.

    Weakness: Criteria of system leadership style remain limited up to the matrix approaches and maintain the complexities at different levels that may create more complex situations with in  organisations.

    Contingency leadership

    This leadership mainly associated with clarification the undecided situation and scenarios. To assess this leadership style with in organisation it is require to understand the dynamics of contingent business cases and scenarios. A practical based scenarios and contingent situations are considered with in organisational context to devote skills and management in business with particular base. Amazon can implement this theory to reflect the confident image of leaders and managers to demonstrate their knowledge in contingent situations.

    Strength: This model is effective and contingent in terms of motivating the staff members and manpower of organisation to incorporate the challenges for better formation and practicability.    

    Weakness: This leadership style remain ineffective in decision making scenarios and practical based examples while consolidating changes and scenarios with in and outside the organisation.

    P3 Key approaches to operations management and the role that leaders and managers play (COVERED In PPT)

    Environmental factors are based on influencing operation directly and indirectly which is affected by business. External factors are of two types micro and macro. They are basically internal and external factors which are influenced by business environment. The factors are defined below.Micro factors: 


    Suppliers are those who are providing raw material to an organisation. Amazon is increasing price of raw material and cost of production which decreases profits of company. An organisation is looking on products that to deliver with smoothly leading with operations.


    They are those who consume goods by satisfying from them. Amazon provide product as per need of customer. In this, when sales decreases profit of an organisation automatically decreases. Company is looking forward on customers with respect to fulfil their needs.


    This factor is include certain basic things which is notified by various form of competition in market. Amazon faces various forms of differentiated products from company. Their having many competitors in market like flip cart, myntra etc. It grasp full range of competition in market with durability of products


    It is a group that effects potential interest of company with an ability to achieve objectives. Public is leading with consumer protection, media persons etc. Amazon creating goodwill among public by getting  favourable responses  from them. Their regard is on the basis of effectively managing relationships with customers, distributors and suppliers. This is monitor with concept of spending time with opinions and needs by dealing with them constructively.

    Marketing intermediaries:  

    They are based on either individual or business which includes promoting, selling and distributing goods to consumers. Amazon is leading with servicing agency which is based on providing product to customers by reaching with active consideration.


    They are leading with organisation which are highly secured in position. The person are required for Amazon in order to join unions which is collectively bargaining and employers exploitation. An organisation formed by protecting interests and improving working conditions.

    Macro factors:


    Political factors are those which include government policy, taxes, foreign trade policy, environmental laws etc. This factor impacted on an organisation which anticipated in future legislations. Environment influence organisation environment with respect to increase in cost of production and reduces overall profits of company.


    Economic factors are affected externally which includes exchange rates, inflation rate, disposable income of consumers etc. Inflation is affected on raw material prices which increases operational cost and manufacturing cost of product. When company reduces its sales profit automatically reduces. In this, factors are relating with incomes of which are spend in way to peoples. Its significant impact came on Amazon for looking after on profitability of company.  


    This factor includes fashion, tastes and preferences of customer on particular product. Manager of an organisation is analysing tastes, lifestyles of customers changes with environmental conditions. Their include areas which are based on sharing belief in order by building interest on particular product. This is known by affecting various factors like population growth, health conscious, career attitu8des etc.


    Company includes many of the factors which is affected by technology are producing goods and services, distributing and communicating with target markets.  Amazon is based on new updated technologies which is useful for them in attracting many of the customers towards products. Online techniques are playing vital role in market that makes direct focus on youngsters

    Environmental factors:

      This factor became important which includes scarcity of resources, pollution target, ethical and sustainability of company etc. Amazon is facing these factors which makes consumer more demanding through products. They are building issues in marketers which is faced within the factor.  


    The above report conclude management and operations for better formation and the execution process to execute the plans and objectives of organisation. Role of a leader and the functions of a manager in organisational context consolidated with effective results and operating objectivities for better changes and developing changes. The process of appreciation of the role of managers and leaders state that organisational objectives and plans can be ascertained with creative plans and framework. It is illustrated that effective relations between leadership and management in contemporary business environment helps in determining the associated roles and responsibilities with in organisational context.  

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