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    Compare and Contrast the Psychosocial and Biochemical Models of Health & Illness

    Question :

    this assessment will cover:

    1. Give appropriate areas and the effective quality relation for health and social care.
    2. Give appropriate strategies used by NHS.
    3. Evaluate policies, procedures and all the effective systems.
    4. Give the methodologies for health service in NHS.
    Answer :


    Health Belief Model is one of the psychological model that was developed for explaining and predicting health behaviours. The Health Belief Model was developed by social psychologists, Hochbaum, Kegels, Rosenstock while working in the U.S Public Health Services.  Psychosocial health deals with the state of mental, emotional, social and spiritual well-being. The bio psychosocial model helps in understanding the health and illness by addressing biological, psychological and social factors (Ell, 2018).  Biomedical models of health deals with the physical and biological aspects of illness and disease. Biomedical model of health purely focuses on the biological factors and it excludes psychological, environmental as well as social influences. It is considered as one of the leading modern method for healthcare professionals in order to diagnose and treat any health and illness condition is most of western countries. Biomedical risk factors are stated through physically and are often influence by behavioural risk factors. This report is totally based on the compare and contrast of the psychosocial and biochemical models of health& illness.

    Compare and Contrast the psychosocial and biochemical models of health & illness

    Psychosocial health is overall related with the combination of psychological and social behaviour. With the help of bio psychosocial model it becomes easy to understand the health and illness by proper analysis and addressing of biological, psychology and social factors. Bio psychosocial model was first time proposed by the George L. Engel in 1977 in order to better reflect the development of health and illness through the complex interaction of biological, psychological factors and social factors. Psychosocial model helps in development of blueprint for research design to develop and implement an action in the real world of health care. Psychological model has vast application scope and has been applied across various fields of healthcare which mainly involves pain, diabetes, sleepwalking, gambling, hypothyroidism and mental brain related issues (Aldwin et.al, 2017).

    In today's world, human are undergoing various life and environmental changes due to which human brain and it function also changes. An individual person's environment and genetic make up is somewhere are interacted with each other and will create a profound effect on mental health, brain functions and biological health. To understand the someone's mental health it is important to focus on all those factors affecting both positively and negatively to create overall health and well-being. In the views of Dr. George Engel and John Romano, the psychological perspective is more suitable when analysis the factors and mental illness.

    Psychological model have generated the idea that there are various biological, psychological and social determinants for mental health and illness. Bio psychosocial perspective is very useful as it allows for the proper explanation that  how  human who seems to be healthy  but are facing mental illness and how some are more inclined to mental illness than others. It is found that those human how are mentally fit, they have positive energy and strong social bonds  that keeps them away from mental illness. The psychological model perspective gives strong evidence that although an individual can be mentally healthy at some point of life but they still experience mental illness when they face any issues or when their bio psychosocial balance is disturbed.

    In context to psychosocial model, interaction and inter connection between people's genetic make-up, mental health and  sociocultural environment all together contribute to human health and illness. There are various biological factors that directly influence the mental health and mental illness which includes hormones, toxins, nutrition, physical trauma and infections. There are many psychological components that outlook for potential psychological explanations for health issues and problems which mainly includes lack of self control, negative thoughts and emotional turmoil. In context with social and cultural factors that are some particular sets of events in daily life that directly impact the mental heath status depending upon human social context (Falvo and Holland, 2017).

    Bio psychosocial model acts as contrast to the traditional biomedical model of medicine. According to modern neuroscience, psychosocial model is general model or approach that posits that biological, psychological which involves thoughts, emotions, behaviour and social factors, all of this plays very significant role in human functioning in concern with human health and illness. Psychosocial model also states that psychosocial factors can cause and effect a biological effect by predisposing the patient to risk factors. There are several biological factors that influences the mental health and mental illness, the major categorises that falls in this includes genes, infections, physical trauma, hormones and toxins. A large body of empirical literature has identified that social -cognitive also known as psycho-social aspects of Engel's model variables that appears to affect the engagement in healthy behaviours and also adhere to be prescribed the medical regimens. Some of the psycho-social issues that is faced by human includes anxiety, depression, coping skills, social support, insomnia, memory and other cognitive difficulties.

    Biomedical word comes from Greek word “bios” which means life and the Latin word “medicus” which means healing. The biomedical model of healthcare emphasis purely on biological factors and it excludes all the social, psychological and environmental influences. Biomedical model does not include and considered diagnosis that may affect the treatment of patient and leads to negotiation between doctor or care taker and patient (Lovallo, 2015).

    Currently, biomedical models are undergoing various challenges in context with disabilities issues. Biomedical models can be of various types which include from animal models of human diseases in vitro and different modelling system that is for studying any aspects of human disease and human disease. Biomedical model of health emphasis on physical and biological aspects of illness and diseases. This model act as medical model of care that is practised by doctors , care takers and health professionals that is somewhere associated with the diagnosis, treatment and care of disease. The biomedical model of health is also referred as the 'band aid' or 'quick fix' approach and it focuses only on the physical or biological aspects of human health and illness. This model includes diagnoses and treatment of illnesses and conditions. The biomedical model centres around various health professionals, surgeons, doctors and all those hospitals that administer treatment. Some of the example that reflect the biomedical model of health and illness are x-rays to diagnose fractured bones, chemotherapy to treat cancer, stitches to assist the healing of laceration, surgery to remove kidney or appendix (Peel and Maxwell, 2017).

    Those individual who concentrates on disabilities, illness and diseases are focused by the biomedical model and attempts to return back the health of person to pre-illness state. The reason for the disease, illness and disabilities are not at all considered under the biomedical model but  the conditions of patient and their treatments along with solution is considered under the biomedical model. Biomedical model generally focuses on the biological determinants of health as a result both behavioural and social determinants of health and illness are excluded. With the enhancement of advance technology and treatment in the twentieth century, it is observed that there was increased pressure on hospitals and healthcare professionals in order to diagnose diseases accurately and  find out treatment and cures for patient well- being. Both medical science and technologies act as pivotal under biomedical model and many other medical advances have also occurred as result of biomedical model of health. Biomedical model has many advantages that allows to contribute good health to patients for their well-being. Biomedical model has created advances in technology and research and with biomedical model of health there would be no existence of x-rays, antibiotics or anaesthetics (Strickland and Patrick,  2014).

    Due to biomedical model it is found that healthcare professionals are able to diagnose and treat patient well. Biomedical model enables to handle many common problems and to be treated with effectively. With the help of biomedical models, it has become possible to extend life expectancy which means that all those diseases which causes death or causes infectious diseases are able to be treated and cured. Biomedical model has also improved  patient quality of life. Now many chronic conditions are able to managed through advance medication, therapy and surgery. These intervention has improved and enhanced the level of health that is experienced by various individuals. Although biomedical models has played vital role in the treatment method of patients and has great contribution is health system but it has its own limitation. Not every medical condition can be treated under the biomedical models.

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    It is found that both psychosocial and biochemical models are crucial in order to maintain good health condition. For proper well being of patient health it is important to focus biological, physical aspects of treatment along with psychological, environmental and social influences. It is observed that in biomedical models of health and illness the influences of environment and social  factors are usually excluded and are not consider under patient treatment. But all this factors are somewhere affects the health condition of patient treatment. Biomedical models are not applicable in very medical condition and not every individual can afford expensive medical resources that act as part of biomedical model of health.

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