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    Unit 3 Human Resource Management Regent College Level 4


    Human resource is the most important tool for the success of the entity. They are having very significance role in the business (Badawy, 2007). They are the most prominent part for the organisation. AO world PLC is a UK based corporate entity and is operating trade activities in the retail field. There are large numbers of employees working with it so it is essential for the company to manage the human resource activities. In this report role of human resource management, types of flexibility models, discrimination and equal opportunity concepts are described. The purpose of the report is to find out and address all the relevant data about human resource practices and its significance in the current business scenario.

    Task 1


    Human Resources management is a wider term and it is very important for the management to opt the best suitable strategies for managing the employees in a company. The guest Model of HRM is related with the managing and administration activities in the organisation. There are two dimensions as per this model the first is hard and the another is soft. David Guest has explained two models such as hard and soft. As far as soft HRM is concerned it is related with the movement of the employees so it has a great significance on the human resources. It basically deals with the utilization of the talent and perspective of the  theory of the HRM. It can be said that the high commitment of the work system is the part of this approach. This concept is interrelated with the flexibility and adaptability (Jackson, Schuler and Werner, 2011).  

    As far as Hard approach of human resource management is concerned it is based on the quantitative, calculative and strategic approach of the management. So the strategic policies of the organisation and strategic objectives are considered under the hard approach of the human resource management. So there are two approaches of the human resource management hard and soft so these are concepts which can be considered under the guest model. There are six dimensions as per this theory HRM strategy, practices outcomes and behaviour outcomes, financial outcomes, performance outcomes and human resource outcomes (Badawy, 2008).

    Guest model of HRM is the most important factor to determine the role of the human resources in the business. It is essential to manage the employees at the work place so that the workings can be done in more smooth manner. So the guest model of HRM is based on the management of the human resource in the company. As employees of the entity are the most important element of the corporation. The success of the company is relied on the shoulder of the workers so it is essential to manage the employees at work place.


    Personnel management is a great concept in it the individual management is done. Mr. storey has given the description about the personnel management. There are some areas on which the focus is given. There are two companies which are focusing on different approaches of HRM, the distinction about these corporates is described as under:

    Personnel and IR (Shine Communications)

    HRM (AO World PLC)

    In this approach procedures are considered so that the trade activities can be done.

    In this approach business need is considered.

    This approach is about monitoring the business activities.

    This concept is about nurturing the business.

    It is Pluralistic approach.

    It is Unitarianism approach.

    The conflicts under this concept is institutionalized.

    On the other hand in this approach the conflicts are De-emphasised.


    The key relationships are related with the labour management.

    In this approach the relations are managed with the customers.


    The leadership styles which is opted under this concept is transactional (Byham-Gray,  2010).

    On the other hand in this approach the transformational leadership styles is opted.


    Key managers are personnel and IR specialist.

    In this concept the key managers are general, business and line managers.


    In it the negotiation skills as a prized management is used.

    In this concept the facilitation approach of the prized management is used.


    In it separately marginal task are done.

    It is a integrated approach as per the perspective of doing the task.


    There are many job categories.

    There are few job categories.


    It has the control access to the courses.

    It has the training and development schedule of learning companies.


    The flow of the communication is restricted.

    In this the flow of the communication is increased.

    Thus, in above mentioned way the difference as per the elements of the Storey's definition in the personnel management and human resource management.

    Also Read: Unit 14 Human Resource Management St. Patrick's College London Level 4


    Strategic approach is the most important element of the human resource management. Line managers are the ultimate authorized persons who have to work for the development of the employees and staff members. If the functioning is done properly then the workers will be able to perform the trade activities in the most effective way (Varma and Budhwar, 2013). It is very important for the line managers to take care of all the essential elements related with the human resource in a company. AO World PLC is a retailer entity, and has to manage the activities of the human resources. The line managers are the core parts of the organisation, so they are to manage the activities related with the business. They have to manage the employees and their workings at work place.

    They make the discipline at work place and get the employees done all the task. The strategic management is a part of the management, in it the managers have to work for the development of the organisation. Their target is to achieve the target and ultimate goal of the business. Workers are having vital role in managing and doing the business activities. So to manage them is very important and crucial task.

    Along with the line managers employees are also having a great role in managing the strategic management at work place (Elvira and Dávila, 2007). They are the key factors for the business and their role is very significant in the trade operations. Workers have to manage the functional activities in the business. They make the communications with clients and other team members. Workers are the ultimate liable persons for achieving the goals and targets of the corporation. The workers have to perform their activities in such manner that no issue can take place and the performance of the team can be increased. So it can be said that the mangers and the employees both are having significance in the business.

    Task 2


    There are various flexible models in the business which can be adopted in the company. If the business is done with the most important assignment online dignity and the trade can be explored. Flexibility is essential at workplace, by this the workers can be felt more comfortable and they will have to work for the welfare of the business (Major and et.al., 2007). AO world Plc is a wide organisation and there are large number of people working with it so in this situation it is essential to have the most appropriate model of the flexibility. There can be very different work culture for the employees in the company so to manage them can be a great task. If the model of the flexibility is applied in the organisation then the employees can perform better and they will be able to provide the best services to the entity. The flexibility models which can be adopted in the company are mentioned as under:

    The core and periphery workforce model:

    There are various economic and social changes in the business so in this situation top manage the diversity is very important for the managers of the company. The company can use this model as the employers with a conscious core periphery strategy constitute a minority and they do not employ the peripheral activities in a disproportionate number (Gordon and Whitchurch,  2007). The company can have large number of employees and they have to work for the welfare of the business. So this model can be used to in the workplace so that the flexibility can be managed in the organisation.

    Handy's Shamrock Model:

    The advantage of the concept is that it can react quickly to a change in its external environment. Charles Handy described that companies do not consist of core and periphery. He told about shamrock organisation. There are three leafs or kinds of this model are described as under:

    • The first leaf of this model describes about the multi skills professionals such as technicians and managers (Morley, Heraty and Michailova, 2016).
    • The second leaf refers the contractual fringe, because the activities which are non central includes the marketing, computing and research.
    • The third leaf describes about those employees who have joined the office as pa part time or temporary basis.

    He emphasis about the modified working culture of the employees so that they can work with the best dignity and potential. As per his description the first leaf category persons are not to be trained highly. As per his concept the employees are the most important asset of the organisation to take care of their comfort is very important for the business. If they will be provided a better and calm work place then they will be able to perform their activities in smoother way. So he described about the employees and the flexibility models of the business (Bae, Rowley and Sohn 2012).


    The flexibility model is having very vital role in the business. It helps the employees in attaining the most import goal of the organisation. If the trade activities are done in a flexible manner then the business can be grow faster. It is the requirement of the changing business environment to have a flexible work place so that business can accomplish its targets and goals. There are various models of the flexibility in the organisation which can be adopted for managing the trade activities. Some of these are described as under:


    This refers to the adjustment which is to be done by the employees in the company so that they can be able to manage their activities related with the functional activity. In it multi tasking, dual skill and occupational groups are considered. In this head the difference between the skilled labour and non skilled labour is considered. This is the term in it the functions of the departments are done as per the eligibility criteria of the persons (Sirmon and et.al, 2007).


    In it the ability of the firm considered so that the input of he labour efforts and the output can be adjusted. There is an increased use of the part-time workers, short term contract staff and job sharers.


    In this model of the flexibility the role of the financing activities is considered. In it the pay and salary structure of the employees are confided. As per this concept the members of the company are to be paid as per the level of the workings.

    Temporal flexibility:

    In the pattern of the workings is considered that how many hours the workers have worked. So in this concept the working of the employees is compared with the demand of the business (Marks and Mirvis, 2011).

    Compressed Working Hours: As per this approach workings are having more important role than the employees. Thus, the employees must be given opportunity to work for the longer days in the shorter weeks. By this the work will be managed in more smoother way.


    In the Organisation there are some employees which are not able to work for the whole day so they have to work in the part-time. If they will be provided this facility then the working flexibility can be emerged.

    Zero Hours Contracts:

    If the work is to be done in the organisation then only the managers provide the facility of employment. The staff members are the workers and they have to work for nop set out hours (Pynes, 2008).

    Thus, in above mentioned way the flexibility models have been described, it is essential for the organisation to work for the development of the entity. And they can better do this if they are following the models of the flexibility as by this they will feel more comfortable and will be dedicated towards the workings of the company.


    It is very important for the both employee and employer to opt the flexible working practices so that the tasks can be completed in the most effective way. If the work is done properly then it will directly beneficial for the employees and the employers.

    There is a great use of the flexible working for the employers. It is very important for the development of the company to use the flexible working practises. If these are opted then all the tasks can be completed properly and they will not have to face any issues (Cunningham, 2010). The main goal of the company is to get done all workings from the workers so that they will be able to provide their best to the entity.

    And this can be done by using the flexible working practices in the trade. So it can be said that the flexible working hours having great role for the management of the entity. The workings can be done in the most effect6iove way and this can create and impact in the mind of the stakeholders so the focus should be on the flexibility in the working practices.

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    Along with the employees will have to have a great benefit form the working practices which are flexible. Such as they will be able top work as per their comfort this will be helpful for them in attaining the targets of the business. They are the most important factors for the organisation and if their needs are fulfilled then they will be motivated towards the goals and aims of the entity which are to be achieved. Thus, it can be said that the flexible working practices are having a vital role in the business and are beneficial for the employers and employee both in meeting the ultimate goal of then entity (Scullion and Collings,  2011).


    Labour markets is having a great role and significance in managing the trends of the flexible marketing practices. Labour market changes have emerged the working practices of the labours and  their working cultures. Labour market have made the policies for the protection of the workers the work place. So that a safe and secure working environment can be provided to them. The nation must tray to follow the principles of the flexibility so that a keen and good working practices can be provided to the workers (Dowling, 2008). The workers are the most prominent asset of the organisation therefore it is very important for them to work with the best dignity.

    If they will be provided the best culture then they will be able to understand the issues related with the business. They should be provided a flexible working environment so that they can work in the most efficient way. The strict working practices can stop them in attaining the target of the entity.

    As per the ILO skilled workforce can adopt the changing the requirements of the business. Globalisation has opened the UK to deal with the other nations as it is very important for it to opt the best working practices. Technological change has made it easier to have a flexible work place. The modified social structure has increased the female participation in the trade activities, so that they can also be motivated to take part in the organisational practices (Reichel and Mayrhofer,  2009).

    Task 3


    Discrimination is major problem in organisation that affect the business functions and employee work efficiency, it is can be defines as the putting unnecessary restrictions on workers at workplace. Discrimination has various form such as the gender, religion, ethnicity, disability, age, sexual orientation and education etc.

    Types of  discriminations in organisation:

    Gender Discrimination:

    it is kind of inequality at workplace  by imposing the specific rules and regulation over the workers that make them uncomfortable to accomplish their tasks or treating women and men differently on paying of salary while they have same qualification and skills. It is create the differences among the employees on the basis of gender (Holbeche, 2009).

    Religion inequality:

    in this types of discrimination create unfavourable situation to worker for their religion. At workplace treat to employee superior or inferior because their religion, faith and belief. For example treat Jews employee less important at workplace. It decrease the morale of the employee toward to the organisation.

    Discrimination on ethnicity:

     it is unlawful to treat worker unfavourable for their origin or their race at organisation. This kind of inequality lead poor communication among subordinates. For example making business policies and strategies to create discrimination a specific nation's people.

    Disability inequality:

    in this for of discrimination concern that treat a inferior to a physical disable person with other.  When the employer reject an eligible applicant for his or her disability. It is unlawful for an organisation to treat less to employees for poor physical (Perez Arrau, Eades and Wilson, 2012).

    Age discrimination:

    as the name suggests it is form of inequality at work place on the basis of the employees age. Differences in paying or job responsibility to among worker accordance of age is called age discrimination. In now days many organisation prefer youth over the aged applicants to hiring them.

    Sexual orientation inequality: 

    favouritism at work for their sexual basis, treating differently or negative to worker who perceived sexual orientation like lesbian, gay and transsexual. These kind of employees face inferior and harassment (Felin,  Zenger and Tomsik,  2009).

    Educational discrimination:

     in this form of inequality unfavourable treatment to employees by the employer for the education. Discrimination with employee in job role, unfair remuneration to employees of the organisation for their education, for example favouritism of the Oxford business graduate personal over the other business schools graduates employees.


    Equal opportunity means provide the fair opportunity to all the workers of the organisation for the personal and professional goals through accomplishment of assigned task by the manager or supervisor of the departments or the top management. Providing equal opportunity assist to eliminate the possibility of the discrimination at workplace for the various aspect like age, religion, ethnicity, gender and sexual inequality. Equal opportunities lead the productivity and efficiency of the worker of the company (Gong and et.al. 2009).

    The following aspects of policies help to minimise the discrimination or provide the equal job opportunities to the employees of corporation:

    • To provide the surety there will no inequality for the job responsibilities on the basis of the gender, ethnicity, religion, age, disability, education and sexual orientation.
    • Implement the equal opportunity law or policy at workplace to avoid the chances of the discrimination for colour, region ethnicity of the employees or team of the company.
    • Time to time review of the policies of inequality to check the discrimination exist or not if it is to remove it again (Garavan, 2007).
    • Make aware to the management of the staffing and recruiter in the organisation to provide the appropriate opportunities of the getting jobs in the respective company.
    • Provide a working climate where worker of the organisation can work freely without any kind of the interruption by the supervisor or the other department of the corporation due his belongingness of the specific region or faith.  
    • Setting a team to review the percentage of the participation of the worker in working activities to check the involvement of them and find the reason of low interest if it exist cause of the discrimination and remove it.
    • Provide the equal fair remuneration for job and overtime to employees.
    • Framework those strategies to promote interest of the specific ethnicity of the group to get opportunity individual and team development.
    • Effective implementation of the no discrimination policies at workplace (Sanyal and Sett,  2011).
    • Provide training season for employees to prevent the probability of the discrimination in the organisation.

    It is the responsibilities of the management to provide a workplace to employees to treat fair to prevent their harassment through making the equal opportunities' policy then implement it and monitor.


    Managing diversities is a different approach then equal opportunities. It is very important for the development of the entity to have a sound and nice business culture so that the workers can feel motivated and they will not have to work for the discrimination practices (Baum, 2007). Equal Opportunity is a  traditional model, in it the legislation is used to eliminate the discrimination. And the managing diversity is a another approach than this as in it the diversity among the workers is managed. As per this approach there are sex, age, background and disability related diversities at work place so it is essential to mange these.

    In the managing diversity approach all the employees at work place who are from different cultures are treated in such manner that there should not be any bias among them. The major difference in both the terms is driven force of implementation. Equal Opportunity is a external element is driven by the legislative practices and society ethnics. While managing diversity is the internally treated approach in it the matters are manges and discussed in the specific group. In this term the company pays attention on managing the workers at work place so that they can be able to do the task in the most effective way and there should not be discrimination among them. Thus, it can be said that EO is a concept in it employees are managed with diversity backgrounds represent the equal opportunities. It is crucial for business to manage the effectiveness and can give a competitive advantage to the business (Kakuma, and et.al. 2011).

    EO approach presents the social justice, human rights and the duties of the employers in the business. On the other hand managing diversity is related with treating the workers in such way that the needs of them can be considered and fulfilled. It is a moral and ethical concept which should be followed (Batt and Colvin, 2011).

    Task 4


    Performance appraisals deals with the matters of evaluation and measuring performance. Employees are the core workers of the business so to take care their needs and to evaluate their performance is the most important factor. The methods of the performance management are described as under:

    • Behavioural Check list:It is a list in which the criteria is described of the workings of the employees. It is considered that of the workers are working as per this list then they are having the exact eligibilities which are demanded by the organisation. This is done on the individual performance of the workers (Cowling, 2013).
    • 360 Degree appraisals: It is the technique in which the feedback of the manager, supervisor, team members is included. In this method of the performance appraisals the whole profile of the employees is to be checked. In the addition of the measuring the work performance of the workers their technical skills are also evaluated.
    • Management By Objective: in this term the evaluation of the performance of employees is done by using some methods of the performance appraisals. With this method the appraiser can easily define the success and failure easily (Kang, Morris and Snell,  2007).
    • Scale Rating Method:In this method the performance of the workers is evaluated by the measuring their workings on a scale. So that the appropriate rating can be managed as per the working styles of the workers.
    • Psychological Method:In this concept the evaluation of the work performance of the workers is done on the basis of their intellect, emotional stability, analytical skills and oter psychological traits. By using this method the employer will be able to make the teams and to place the most suitable candidates in that team (Badawy, 2007).

    Thus, in above mentioned way some most important element for evaluating the performance of the employees are described. It is essential to evaluate and performance the workers so that their workings can be monitored. Thus, the performance evaluation is the most important part for the success of the business. The management of the employees is the great task for the employers in managing the performance of the company.


    Employee welfare is very important for the business. Human resource is considered as the most ingredient part for the company. So to manage them is essential for the benefit of the business. The success of the company is relied on the shoulders of the employees so their protection is the obligation of the managers. If they will be protected then their business can be managed in the most efficient way. AO world PLC is following some concepts or approaches for the welfare of the workers and these are described as under:

    • Occupational Health and Practices and Policies: In this concept the management of the business is responsible for the betterment of the company. If the health of the workers will be good and fair enough then they will provide their best potential to the company. Workers are the most important persons who are liable for managing the business activities. If they will be provided the best services and a safe working environment then their welfare can be done (Jackson, Schuler and Werner,  2011).
    • Management of ill Health at work: In the concept the workers are provided the safe and secure work place. If they fall ill in the office hours and while doing the business activities then the management of the entity has to make an arrangement about this so that the employees who are suffering from ill health can be protected.
    • Accidents At Work:If the workers have to face the accidents while doing their business workings, then there should be such arrangements in the company that the quick relief can be provided to the suffered people. So the employee welfare can be done by providing quick relief to the workers (Badawy, 2008).
    • Stress Management: The employees have to manage the work and sometimes there can be such critical situations and the workers have to work in that situation as well. So in these circumstances they have to bear the stress and their mental level can be distracted so in this situation the stress can be enhanced. In this case the welfare of the workers can be done and the stress management activities can be opt in the organisation so that the workers can feel stress released.
    • Protection to the HIV and AIDS suffered Employees: In this section the workers who are suffering from such hazardous diseases can be protected and a extra treatment can be provided to them. So the HIV and AIDS suffered employees are to be taken care in the most effective way so that they can not feel discriminated and extra care and precautions can be provided to them (Byham-Gray, 2010).

    Thus, in above mentioned way the welfare schemes are described which can be opted in the businesses.


    Health and Safety is the most important element of the business as by opting this the workers can be treated in the most efficient way. Employees are the most prominent part for the organisation and therefore their needs and requirements must be fulfilled so that they can not feel discriminated. The legislative principles are to be followed by the company and these are described as under:

    Health and Safety Work Act 1974:

    This Act defines general duties of the employers, as they are the responsible persons so their duty is to protect the interest of the employees. As per this law the workers are to be treated in such manner that interest can not be violated. Their protection is the liability for the organisation and they have to care the various aspects of the enterprises. If a safe and healthy work environment is provided to the employees then they will be able to work in their best practice and the ultimate goal of the business can be obtained. Under this Act a health and safety commission is made which is liable for taking care the principles related with the health and safety principles in the corporation (Varma and Budhwar,  2013).

    Working Time Regulations (1998):

    These regulations are implied on all the workers and indicates the rest breaks of the employees, weekly rest, daily rest and other working practices. As per this Act the workers can not work more than 48 hours in a week. It grants the right to be paid 28 days leaves per annum. As per this law every employee is liable for 6 minutes break and he should be given that.

    Parental Leave 2009:

    As per this Act every male who is working in the company will be liable for the parental leaves as it is his right (Elvira and Dávila 2007). So this is a legislative principle which is followed by organisations.


    There can be various issues which are to be faced by the employees at work place. So it is essential to manage the activities related with the workers (Marks and Mirvis, 2011). One issue which can be taken for this is e-recruitment. In this process the data and qualification of the workers can not be addressed. This is becoming a great issue for the human resources. Recruitment and selection is the big problem for the workers. In this technological environment the recruitment process is also emerging with the latest trends. But it can be a great issue to employ the workers through e recruitment process. In it the actual qualification of the candidates can be known and identifies (Major, and et.al., 2007). And their knowledge can not be addressed.

    So it can be said that the actual and fair report of the employees can not be evaluated. E-recruitment is not a good process to adopt in it various issues are exist. The personal selection is having a higher scope rather than the e-recruitment. As the basic details and level of mental and presentable skills can not be identified in this recruitment method. So it can be a crucial and difficult situation for the human resource in a company.


    In the above mentioned report role of human resource and its management is described. For managing the organisational activities there is a great role of the employees. They are the most prominent pillars for the entity. And the success of the corporate is relied on them so to manage the employees is the most difficult task for the managers in the business. Thus, it can be concluded that the human resource management is a wider term and it is essential for the company to manage all its working members so that they can perform their activities in the most effective way.


    • Badawy, M. K., 2007. Managing human resources. Research-Technology Management, 50(4). pp.56-74.
    • Badawy, M., 2008. Managing human resources. IEEE Engineering Management Review. 1(36). p.117.
    • Bae, J., Rowley, C. and Sohn, T.W. eds., 2012. Managing Korean business: Organization, culture, human resources and change. Routledge.
    • Batt, R. and Colvin, A. J., 2011. An employment systems approach to turnover: Human resources practices, quits, dismissals, and performance. Academy of management Journal. 54(4). pp.695-717.
    • Baum, T., 2007. Human resources in tourism: Still waiting for change. Tourism Management, 28(6), pp.1383-1399.
    • Byham-Gray, L., 2010. Managing Human Resources. Nutrition Dimension.

    You may also like to read : Strategies to Increase The Efficiency and Skills of The Staff

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