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    Manufacturing System

    Concept of ‘Total Productive Maintenance’, TPM.

    What Is TPM?

    It can be considered as the medical science of machines. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.

    TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.

    TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) is a holistic approach to equipment maintenance that strives to achieve perfect production:

    • No Breakdowns
    • No Small Stops or Slow Running
    • No Defects

    TPM emphasizes proactive and preventative maintenance to maximize the operational efficiency of equipment. It blurs the distinction between the roles of production and maintenance by placing a strong emphasis on empowering operators to help maintain their equipment.

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    The implementation of a TPM program creates a shared responsibility for equipment that encourages greater involvement by plant floor workers. In the right environment this can be very effective in improving productivity.

    TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below.

    • Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment.
    • Producing goods without reducing product quality.
    • Reduce cost.
    • Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time.
    • Goods send to the customers must be non defective.

    Types of maintenance

    1.Breakdown maintenance :

    It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.

    2. Preventive maintenance (1951 ):

    It is a daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.

    2a. Periodic maintenance (Time based maintenance - TBM) :

    Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems.

    2b. Predictive maintenance:

    This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system.

    3. Corrective maintenance ( 1957 ) :

    It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability.

    4. Maintenance prevention ( 1960 ):

    It indicates the design of a new equipment. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.

    TPM - History:

    TPM is a innovative Japanese concept. The origin of TPM can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan. However the concept of preventive maintenance was taken from USA. Nippondenso was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960. Preventive maintenance is the concept wherein, operators produced goods using machines and the maintenance group was dedicated with work of maintaining those machines, however with the automation of Nippondenso, maintenance became a problem as more maintenance personnel were required. So the management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the operators. ( This is Autonomous maintenance, one of the features of TPM ). Maintenance group took up only essential maintenance works.

    Thus Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production operators. The maintenance crew went in the equipment modification for improving reliability. The modifications were made or incorporated in new equipment. This lead to maintenance prevention. Thus preventive maintenance along with Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement gave birth to Productive maintenance. The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve optimum life cycle cost of production equipment.

    By then Nippon Denso had made quality circles, involving the employees participation. Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance. Based on these developments Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished plant prize for developing and implementing TPM, by the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers ( JIPE ). Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to obtain the TPM certification.

    TPM Targets:

    • Obtain Minimum 80% OPE.
    • Obtain Minimum 90% OEE ( Overall Equipment Effectiveness )
    • Run the machines even during lunch. ( Lunch is for operators and not for machines ! )
    • Operate in a manner, so that there are no customer complaints.
    • Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%.
    • Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer.
    • Maintain a accident free environment.
    • Increase the suggestions by 3 times. Develop Multi-skilled and flexible workers.

    TPM is most difficult of all lean tools to implement

    It is important to understand up front that Total Productive Maintenance is the most difficult of all the “lean tools” to implement in companies for two reasons:

    A TPM implementation requires the greatest amount of culture change (as compared to implementing other lean tools) from different groups of people within the organization almost simultaneously.

    Of all of the areas of potential lean process improvement within the four walls of an organization, the maintenance of our equipment is the area which is the furthest behind.

    Fortunately, the payback from this implementation – in terms of on-time delivery, reduced scrap, improved productivity and improved associate morale – is probably greater than any of the other lean tools.

    To successfully implement TPM (as well as any of the other lean tools), it must be built on a foundation of a lean culture and supported by the lean policy deployment part of lean planning.

    The development of a lean culture starts with the establishment of behavioral expectations. Such expectations, or codes of conduct, set the culture baseline.

    This must change. In lean, maintenance activities are known to be the foundation of creating world-class manufacturing processes..

    The second change is the development of respect for our manufacturing equipment and the products they produce. Often, U.S. organizations buy new equipment, ignore or are unconcerned about proper maintenance procedures and schedules, and then proceed to run the equipment into the ground. Then everyone stands around complaining that what the organization needs is new equipment. They buy new equipment and the cycle repeats.

    While visiting Japan, we were told by a Japanese plant manager, who was watching a brand new piece of equipment being unloaded at his facility, that “this was the worst condition this piece of equipment would ever be in.” This reflected a cultural respect for how important the equipment was to their success and how the Japanese never let equipment deteriorate but always try to improve it or make it better (easier to operate, easier to maintain, etc.).

    Additionally, top management must:

    • Make TPM a part of their policy deployment goals
    • Support the creation of a full-time certified lean facilitator position (organizations with more than 100 people)
    • Support, encourage and discuss the organizational role and culture changes that will be required during this transition
    • Ignore the red flags that TPM will create if the organization is using a “standard cost” accounting system
    • Recognize a world-class-level TPM implementation can take many years (again, of all the lean tools/activities, maintenance is the furthest behind)

    Other TPM Implementation Considerations

    1) Some thoughts on supporting the maintenance department culture change:

    • Treat/respect maintenance as the foundation of our processes (not as an indirect cost!).
    • Move maintenance to the center of the processes (if required, 5-S during the move).
    • Assign maintenance directly to cells, production lines and value streams (indirectly to maintenance manager).

    2) Of the five potential maintenance strategies:

    Breakdown – Wait until it breaks then scramble or use the “fire-fighting” strategy, also known as reactive maintenance (this is what many organization are currently doing).

    Preventive (planned downtime) – Periodic or scheduled maintenance; e.g., oiling, greasing, filter changes, etc., to prevent premature wear and breakdowns, combined with periodic major inspections and overhauls, which prevent equipment performance deterioration.

    Predictive – Repair or replace components before failure based on historical information, monitoring equipment operation or life cycles. Life cycles can be based on:

    • Number of cycles
    • Operating time in minutes or hours
    • Calendar time
    • Component wear data
    • Variations in component operating parameters

    Corrective or improvement – Use of “root cause” analysis to determine why a component wore out or failed, followed by equipment modifications or upgrades to prevent recurrence.

    Maintenance Prevention – Design or specification of equipment components that do not require maintenance. This can include the design or specification of equipment that is easy to clean, inspect and lubricate.

    Preventive and predictive strategies can account for 75 to 90 percent of all improvement in the short term.

    Industrial case studies identify how the fourth industrial revolution can integrate with TPM.

    Process industries have a particularly urgent need for collaborative equipment management systems, but until now have lacked for programs directed toward their specific needs. TPM in Process lndustries brings together top consultants from the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance to modify the original TPM Development Program. In this volume, they demonstrate how to analyze process environments and equipment issues including process loss structure and calculation, autonomous maintenance, equipment and process improvement, and quality maintenance. For all organizations managing large equipment, facing low operator/machine ratios, or implementing extensive improvement, this text is an invaluable resource.

    As manufacturing has become more automated and competition has grown, Total Productive Maintenance has been increasingly adopted in both developed and developing country manufacturing operations as a way of improving reliability and reducing costs. This is evidenced by the rise in interest in the TPM Awards presented by JIPM and the integration of TPM in other improvement programmes, as seen in some of the most recent winners of the Britain’s Best Factory awards.

    TPM has always been focused on gaining a competitive advantage and in a keynote address the Managing Director of JIPM, Mr S Suzuoki, will explain how TPM can be used for sustainable competitive advantage.

    Industry 4.0 and Total Productive Maintenance

    The fourth industrial revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is set to drive changes in production processes, engineering and the global competitive landscape through the development of digital networks. This presents new challenges to the managers of process equipment, making reliability and the TPM goal of Zero Breakdowns even more crucial.

    Case Study:

    Many people are always talking about the fourth industrial (r)evolution which focuses on new embedded technology in my company, real time collaboration, mobility, on-the-fly engineering analytics, intelligence, connectivity (internet of things, cloud-based solution) and visualization to create a seamless and agile manufacturing ecosystem. We know new knowledge and workers will be required – people with learning agility, who are able to adapt quickly, who are new technology savvy, who can interact with global customer-supplier communities.

    Industry 4.0 is to bring decoupled, fully flexible and highly integrated manufacturing based on cyber-physical production systems in our factory:

    • Smart factories: more automation, better control and optimization of processes – using embedded software and intelligent devices in products and factory infrastructure.
    • Virtual factories: holistic and combined value creation by integrating products and services across the extended enterprise with enhanced supplier chain productivity – using software to interconnect and manage distributed factory assets.
    • Digital factories: product ‘visualization’ before it is produced with better design productivity – using software for digital representation, test and simulation or product and processes prior to their manufacturing or use.

    The big idea is that it will allow our company to involve their customers more closely in the production process and to react faster on changing market requirements. Also, the ideal factory envisages a self-controlling (and perhaps self-learning) production process, in which production reacts autonomously to changes or faults and takes appropriate measures. This will bring systems engineering, production IT, and business systems to a new level – leveraging business benefits from an increasingly integrated Product Life-cycle Management (PLM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).

    Historically, PLM has been about breaking the silos between Engineering, Manufacturing, Sales and Marketing, Service and Support. Industry 4.0 will bring PLM to an extra level of integration and complexity. It will take time as it will require:

    • New collaboration networks that are more intuitive and flexible.
    • Rapidly scalable solutions which are based on user-centric and on-demandcollaboration, instead of document-centric data exchanges
    • Openness and IP management.
    • Replacement of all legacy solutions which are not integrated by new technology solutions that embrace consumer IT innovations, technologies and cross-industry and cross-organizational learning (open innovation).

    Industry 4.0 is a vision of the future which is starting to take shape in some industries like ours… First, PLM needs to close the gap on basic product development and manufacturing engineering requirements, such as: engineering and manufacturing standards, PLM to PLM (or intra-PLM ecosystem) integration, BOM synchronization, part revision, CAD to CAE / SLM, mobility, business intelligence, PLM-ERP integration, compliance, systems engineering, customer focus, extended enterprise collaboration, etc.

    The expectation is that Industry 4.0 will lead to new business models and value propositions based on less waste and energy use, increased efficiency, fast turnaround, better quality, less rework, faster time-to-market, high value products, new kind of jobs, supplier chain transparency, IP security, reduced carbon footprint.

    Six Sigma Project:-

    Pareto Graphs Cause and Effect Diagrams Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) SIPOC Charts

    Exhibit how these tools can aggregately be utilized to give an organized critical thinking/indicative ability inside assembling framework.

    Six Sigma is an arrangement of strategies and tools for process change. It was presented by designer Bill Smith while working at Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it integral to his business technique at General Electric in 1995.[3] Today, it is utilized as a part of numerous modern sectors.

    It tries to enhance the nature of the yield of a procedure by recognizing and evacuating the reasons for deformities and minimizing fluctuation in assembling and business forms. It utilizes an arrangement of value administration techniques, fundamentally exact, factual strategies, and makes an uncommon framework of individuals inside the association, who are specialists in these strategies. Every Six Sigma extend did inside an association takes after a characterized grouping of steps and has particular esteem focuses, for instance: diminish handle process duration, decrease contamination, lessen costs, increment consumer loyalty, and increment benefits.

    Pareto Chart (Manufacturing Example)

    The hypothesis behind the Pareto Chart began in 1897 when an Italian market analyst named Vilfredo Pareto made a recipe speaking to the uneven conveyance of riches - what later came to be known as the 80-20 run the show.

    You have most likely heard a form of it like: "20% of the general population cause 80% of the issues", or a subsidiary. Dr. J. M. Juran began applying this key to desert investigation - isolating the "crucial few" from the "paltry numerous", and called it the "Pareto Chart".

    Truth be told, some (most) deformity appropriations take after a comparative example, with a moderately little number of issues representing a mind-boggling offer of the imperfections.

    The Pareto Chart demonstrates the relative recurrence of imperfections in rank-request, and hence gives a prioritization instrument so that procedure change exercises can be sorted out to "get the most value for the money", or "pick the low-hanging natural product". Taking after is a case of paint deformities from a car gathering plant:

    Subsequent to checking on the outline above, there is no doubt which imperfection to chip away at first. Be that as it may, this Pareto Chart is built from one measurement just - deformity recurrence. In the event that you discovered that it costs $10 to alter a Dirt deformity, while Sag surrenders cost $100 to right, Sags would most likely be the most elevated need.

    In like manner, on the off chance that one classification speaks to an imperative in general process, its need would be raised. You may wish to counsel the Project Priority Calculator for a layout to organize along different measurements.

    You can produce a Pareto Chart utilizing practically any spreadsheet or outlining programming. These graphs were made utilizing Microsoft Excel. Pareto diagrams are regularly built with level bars, and without the combined rate line, as demonstrated as follows:

    PFMEA (Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) is an organized approach that allots quality hazard levels to every progression in a procedure (producing or value-based). PFMEA is an intense avoidance device, since it doesn't sit tight for deformities to happen, yet rather foresees them and executes countermeasures early.

    PFMEA is regularly utilized as a part of the Analyze Phase of Six Sigma's DMAIC Methodology, and the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) distributes an extensive PFMEA exercise manual that is definitely justified even despite the cost for any group genuinely mulling over PFMEA's.

    Exhibit how improved and economical assembling/business execution can be accomplished.

    Lean Manufacturing

    Lean assembling or lean speculation are portrayed by four key standards: determine esteem decisively, distinguish the esteem stream for every item, make the esteem stream and let the client pull the esteem. All these four standards seek after the flawlessness (WOMACK et al 1990). These standards are associated with these systems and strategies: accomplishing more with less, zero stock, disposal of the waste, JIT, quality, co-operation with providers, strengthening of the workforce and group working. Lean assembling or lean deduction is the most effective worldview when cost is the triumphant standard.

    Agile Manufacturing

    To be Agile one organization must have the capacity to be equipped for working beneficially in an aggressive domain of persistently, and erratically changing client openings (GOLDMAN et al 1995). This light-footed believing was united in some nimble ideas:

    Products are answers for client's individual issues. The thought is offer arrangements rather items.

    Co-operation to upgrade intensity. It can be come to through virtual associations.

    Mastering change and vulnerability. Entrepreneurial methodologies are received to achieve this objective.

    Leveraging individuals and data. The organization must be information based. Spry assembling is a business system went for giving an undertaking the capacities for achievement in the current changing environment that requests adaptable arrangements (Gunasekaran 2001). Whenever administration and client esteem improvement are prime necessities for market 10 winning then spryness turn into the basic measurement.


    With the end goal of this work alternative was made for inspecting various Case Studies because of the better consistency of results that can be accomplished (YIN 1994). With a specific end goal to gather information in a way that an organized investigation could address the points of this work the Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) was embraced. The FAST approach grows the vision of the related capacities and together with the inquiries "how" and "why" address how the objective of fulfilling the customer can be come to. (CSILLAG 1995).

    Case Study – COMSAT BRASIL LTDA.

    COMSAT have been representing 10 years in the Brazilian broadcast communications advertise, and has a yearly pay of US$ 35 million. Figure 7 demonstrates a general perspective of the information sources sought by the venture.

    As observed before the ideas of lean intuition are as of now being connected to the corporative information correspondence administrations industry, with respect to case the accompanying: Specify esteem by particular item, none organizations introduced a reasonable work on esteem investigation that could be seen by clients. As a rule what is apparent is that organizations took after the market arrangement design adjusted to every customer particular needs. 23 Identify the esteem stream – This issue was investigated in detail by one and only venture. In that way procedures are tools for advancing the esteem stream, yet not to synchronize diverse exercises of various offices. As the data element is exceptionally noteworthy to that sort of industry frameworks that convey proficiency to esteem stream are key. Quality – The execution of value projects, for example, quality circles, six sigma among other as of now being used by the assembling undertakings for long are of incredible support in that sort of administrations endeavor. Accentuation ought to be done to the quality measurer as indicated by the customers' perspective, however not to what is better as per the provider organization perspective.

    Is The Concept Of Agile Manufacturing Suitable To The Services Industry?

    As indicated by the considered endeavors the champ paradigm once the specialized prerequisites were fulfilled is cost. Firstly, with respect to costs the lean deduction is more reasonable disregarding a few contemplations that ought to be postured here. Furthermore, undertaking must go to the clients' needs as a particular arrangement and not as an item itself. Costs organization ought to be changed at whatever point the venture changes its inventory network to enhance aggressiveness. At long last, a venture is not ready to go to itself most of the business chances of the correspondence corporative information. Consequently, the idea of coordinated assembling can help undertakings on expanding aggressiveness. As could be seen in this work the idea of dexterous assembling can help the providers on guaranteeing comptitiveness and also on qualifying themselves into an unequivocally cost guided market.

    Among different cases cap can be alluded to here, the virtual association will be highlighted with the end goal of this work. Virtual Organization – Is of outrageous significance that media transmission undertakings focus on the method for offering answer for customers that truly addresses their requirements, and that can be superior to anything other offered by the contender. What can be seen here is that, notwithstanding all organizations appears to recognize what is huge one and only out of the three as of now has a procedure to manage this issue. That is to state, the creation of extraordinary structures to go to clients is not a special case but rather part of the operation. There is here a truly fascinating proposal with respect to the model of Architect, Lead Operator and Caretaker (SNOW et al 1992). This model is intriguing in light of the fact that concentrations not just on the quick planning of a structure additionally on its usage and support. On account of the analyzed endeavors an intriguing probability that ought to be highlighted here is the utilization of the de-coupling point approach (CHRISTOPHER and TOWILL 2001) in which in one section an undertaking is incompletely lean and in another is dexterous. In the phase of business openings' examination, and of elaboration and execution of an answer the venture structure itself effectively. In the operation the venture structures itself leanly.


    Regardless of the use of the lean deduction and the coordinated assembling being not comparable in an assembling undertaking and in an administrations venture, the fundamental objectives are, and in addition the different tools and procedures ought to be connected. Is conceivable to estimate from multiple points of view about explanations behind not formally and fundamentally utilizing analised standards, for example, for example: absence of information, dismissal due the relationship to organizations of products, market dynamism, budgetary limit with regards to assigning assets, childish vision of the organizations supervisors, and numerous other. What happens, however is that regardless of any reason there is a gigantic scope of learning officially amassed in the field of the lean deduction and the dexterous assembling that can help the undertakings of broadcast communications administrations.

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    • ADAMS, Elizabeth .K.; WILLETS, Keith .J. The Lean Communications Provider: Surving the Shakeout through Service Management Excellence, Crawsfordsvilee, IN: McGraw-Hill, 1996. 252 p.
    • APTE, Uday M.; GOH, Chon-Huat. Applying Lean Manufacturing Principles to Information Intensive Services. Paper presented in Production and Operations Management Society in Savannah, GE, USA: 2003. Not Published.
    • CHRISTOPHER, Martin. Logistics and supply chain management: strategies for reducing cost and improving service., 2nd edition, London, UK: Financial Times Pitman. 1998.
    • An Introduction to Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Available at:
    • http://www.plant-maintenance.com/articles/tpm_intro.shtml[Accessed November 11, 2016]
    • Lean Production. Available at:
    • http://www.leanproduction.com/tpm.html[Accessed November 11, 2016]
    • Reliable Plant. Available at:
    • http://www.reliableplant.com/Read/26210/tpm-lean-implement[Accessed November 11, 2016]

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