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    TASK 1

    1.1 Reasons to adjust environmental factors during treatment

    Environmental factors mainly include biotic or abiotic components, which influences living organisms. Here, biotic components consists temperature and amount of light. While abiotic as presence of predators, parasites and more. Therefore, during treatments, it is essential for dental care association to concern on these environmental factors for influencing the decision and satisfaction level of service users. For designing the healthcare facilities, management or doctors need to concern on tools they use, environment where they work and more. By using ventilation and filtration system as well as prevent hospital premises from moisture where treatment is given, help in controlling and preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

    Use of appropriate lightening enable doctors, nurses and other health promoters for visual performance. Similarly heating effect also needs to be controlled while giving treatment by making adjustment in room temperature as per requirement.

    1.2 Process and reasons to maintain equipments with manufacturer’s instructions

    When equipments and medical tools are allocated to a department, it is primarily responsibility of clinical staff to analyse the way they treat them as well as state under which the same is leftover after treatment. In addition to these responsibilities, they also responsible for performance checks before use and routine maintenance by ensuring charging batteries and more. Clinical staff also needs to aware manager and high authorities for any problem related  with device or piece of equipment, without making any delay. They should ensure that damaged equipments should not be used until they are repaired and fully tested as safe.

    As failure of any equipment during treatment leads to cause consequences, for well-being of patients. Therefore, it is essential for maintaining medical equipments in proper manner, which helps in alleviating possibility of sudden incidents and extend life of equipments also. In this regard, procedure for maintaining some equipments under healthcare sectors are-


    This tool is used to remove saliva, pus, blood and more, from oral cavities. To maintain it, always keep the tip in upright position before and after turning the aspiration off.


    In order to maintain dental unit water quality at less than or equal to 500 cfu/ml heterotrophic water bacteria, dental board needs to purge devices and waterlines flushed with air or water, for at least two minutes.   

    Water storage equipment:

    Some dental equipments are directly connected with water system for treatment. It includes automated endoscope re-processor (AER), which may use contaminated water during medical procedures. Because certain microbes from water may contaminate equipments that cause nosocomial infection. Therefore, it is highly important to clean, disinfect as well as maintain such equipments as per manufacturer’s instructions. To rinse such object, use water of highest quality such as sterile or bacteriology-filtered water.

    Task 2

    2.1 Complete the table:


    Action if equipment failure

    Report to

    What records should be kept on servicing and Why

    Dental chair

    Replace it from premises

    Authorised person

    While servicing or repairing, it is essential  to concern on proper maintenance. Engineers should be certified.


    Purchase or repair tools as soon as possible

    Authorised persons

    Replace damaged or defective components

    Hand pieces

    Purchase new one


    Use and check before treatment procedures

    Ultrasonic scaler

    Immediate respond and give reports

    Highly authorised persons

    Any damage in this tool may leads to damage teeth so special concern is necessary during servicing

    X-ray machine

    Plug off the key and inform seniors

    Highly authorised persons

    Routine tests should be carried out

    X-ray processing equipment

    Stop the procedures of treatment and off system immediately

    Highly authorised persons

    Checked properly before use


    Make records of servicing, inspection and user validation checks


    Replacement of components which are defective

    Instrument washer

    Repair it under vision of authorised persons


    Service include repair and preventive maintenance

    Ultrasonic bath

    Check is validation period and mark it for repair

    Highly authorised persons

    Replaced all parts with original manufacturer parts as well as backed up with guarantees.

    Task 3

    3.1 Reasons for per-cleaning instruments prior to sterilisation with risk, correct action and long term effect

    Cleaning process involves removal of debris from equipments therefore, it is essential for pre-cleaning instruments, before sterilisation. If such procedure i.e. debris (organic or inorganic) doesn't removed before sterilisation, then it will lead to microbial inactivation. Properly checking and wearing the appropriate protective gloves and equipments during sterilisation and cleaning procedures, helps to keep personal hygiene, especially in case of damaged instrument. Here, using damaged or pre-used sterile goods have potentially long term effects. It includes damage of internal links, infection blooding and conical issues which may affect directly the human body.

    3.2 Reasons for placing instruments and hand pieces in correct locations to different stages of sterilisation

    For managing and maintaining the entire aspiration equipments, it is essential for concerning towards maintenance of hand pieces and other equipments. They should place in correct place especially during stages of sterilisation because every stage has either direct or indirect impact on results or outcomes.

    3.3 Methods of testing autoclaves

    Autoclaves refers to a routine method which involves techniques for sterilising medical equipments. Different methods can used for testing autoclaves such as laboratory, washer equipment, run testing and more. Dental associations must sterilise spore test under certain autoclave condition.

    Task 4

    4.1 Type of wastages

    In dental association, different types of wastages include- Domestic and Municipal waste (cleaning of floor and wash-rooms); Clinical or Hazardous waste, Mercury-containing; gloves, face-masks, amalgam fillings and more. It can be classified as:

    Hazardous waste

    Non-hazardous waste

    Special waste

    Alcohol wipes, Amalgam (including in extracted teeth),  Tissues,  Lead foil,  Sharps

    Used gloves,  Face masks,  Cotton wool  rolls,  Gauze,  Napkins

    Damaged instruments,  Mouthwash beakers,  Medicines, Stock packaging

    4.2 Dangers of not disposing of waste correctly

    Hazardous and non-hazardous wastages under dental association should be properly managed. As it is the main crucial issue for improving and maintaining ecosystem and human health. If they are not disposed properly then it contributes to generate amount of pollutants in environment. It also includes cross-infection risk, deadly infections like hepatitis, HIV and more.

    4.3 Actions to take in response to given spillages:-

    a) Mercury spillage from an amalgam capsule

    Use scoop for collecting the amalgam or mercury-waste. If there are mercury droplets then use syringe for picking up then place this syringe in waste container box.

    b) Body fluids from a patient who was sick in surgery after impressions

    Inform staff members, patients and other persons about immediate vicinity, locate spill kit, remove mobile equipments which are unaffected and notified the registered manager.

    c) Chemical spillage when diluting ultrasonic bath cleaning solution

    Use sulphur powder and rubber gloves for preventing from chemical effect. Dental association needs to use zipper-shut plastic bags for chemical spillage, when diluting with ultrasonic bath cleaning solution.

    d) Water

    For managing spillage of water, wipe surface of floors and contaminated water as soon as possible, for reducing possibility of accidents.

    Task 5

    5.1 Way to report the following:

    a) Sharp injury

    In case of sharp injuries during sterilisation of equipments, immediate report to seniors.

    b) Damaged instruments

    Inform managers for damaged instruments to be repaired soon for other treatment procedures.

    c) Accidents

    In case of any accident happen while using equipments or chemicals, inform upper level of management.

    d) Contaminated equipments

    Inform doctors to do not uses equipments which are highly or less contaminated for treatment.

    e) Damaged sterile supplies

    Inform authorities or managers to concern on damaged sterile supplies for improving efficiencies.

    5.2 Procedure and equipment needed for:

    a) General equipment cleaning

    For general equipment cleaning, dental associations need to concern on building and maintaining clean and hygiene environment. For example- lightening and humidity, that helps in minimising residues from dust and liquid.

    b) Sterilisation equipment

    For sterilisation, proper ventilation management has to develop and extra care needs to sterilise equipments.

    5.3 Presentation in terms of personal hygiene

    For personal hygiene, female doctors in dental association should tie-up their hair properly. While male doctors or staff members should trim hair more precisely. Both male and female staff or other service providers, must trim their nails, do not wear any jewellery during treatment procedure, wear water-resistant and comfortable footwear. Along with this, their uniform must be cleaned properly on daily basis and must carry hand washing sterilisers, for preventing themselves from bacteria or other infections. 

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