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    Comparison Between Residential, Industrial and Commercial Buildings

    Question :

    This assessment will cover certain questions which are like:

    • What is the differences between the commercial, residential and industrial buildings.
    • What area the effective ways for promoting sustainability in building projects.
    • Give the techniques applied in remediating the construction commencing.
    Answer :


    Construction technology is basically the collection of various innovative tools, machineries, software as well as modifications which are being used during the process of construction of a particular project which allows the advancement within construction methods. The construction methods mainly includes semi-automated as well as automated construction machineries and equipments. Along with this, construction technology is predominately the collection of numerous CII research practices which deals with the technology applications as well as opportunities for improving the performance of project within construction industry.

    This report gives a brief about comparison between residential, industrial and commercial buildings, functional characteristics and design selection criteria, strategies to promote sustainability within building projects, types of information and pre-design studies, functional criteria as well as design criteria for secondary and primary elements, techniques for re-mediating site, types of substructure, Supply arrangements for primary services and distribution arrangements for primary services.


    P1 Difference between residential, commercial and industrial buildings




    Residential buildings are small in size and the equipments used for the construction of this buildings. The equipments used are of smaller size this also depends on the size of the buildings, machinery used are light machinery.

    Commercial building are comparatively bigger than the residential buildings the surface area is larger than that of residential buildings. Equipments used are quiet bigger than that of the residential  building. Heavy machinery is used.

    Industrial building have bigger area and bigger structures, heavy equipments are used as construction needs to be on a larger scale.(Biryukova,  Paringer and Kupriyanov, 2016)

    Material used for the construction of commercial buildings are light as its construction requires a lighter materials. Usually made out of timber and lighter materials. Lesser area needs to be constructed as cheap construction is carried out. Residential buildings are more affordable and easy to be carried out(Brockmann,  Brezinski  and Erbe, 2016).

    Material used is bit heavy as compared to the residential buildings. Typically steel frames are used for the construction. As commercial buildings are used for a long term. Suppliers and construction sites have a long term relationship as the site of construction are bigger and last for almost 2 years.

    Material used in industrial buildings are heavy, the substructure  constructed is heavy as heavy machinery is to be implanted. The structure made is of high carbon steel and the material use like cement used must be rapid hardening cement which have higher strengthen. RCC used must be in the ratio of 1:1:1 which provides a strong base, there must be strip footing used to generate the stronger base for the construction of the buildings.

    Permits required for the construction must be legally approved and the sites used must not affect the nearby workings. Residential buildings are smaller in size and the use of the buildings must be for residential purpose. .

    Permits are required to carry out the construction of the  buildings. Constructional buildings must facilitate all the legal procedures used for the construction sites. They must compete all the legal aspects such as permission of lifts, complex powers, permissible parking and garages(Bryan,  2015).

    Permits must be fulfilled and the legal criteria must be passed by the government as a huge sum of money is required  for the making of the structure legal agreements must be carried out for the development of legal structure which will consists of heavy machinery. It must be developed within a span of distance from residential buildings. For a safer environment.

    P2 Functional characteristics and design criteria are informed by proposed building use

    Various functional characteristics and design criteria which can be used are:

    • A suitable design for the construction must be adopted which can be reliable and safe for constructions as well as for living, there must be a proper balance of all the criteria which must be fulfilled as the design must be well efficient, reduced cost of construction, must impose all the norms of safety and security. 
    • The design must ensure that the air quality and air functioning must be ensured for safer working and living procedures(Chew, 2017.).
    • The design must ensure the energy efficiency and development of the house safeguarding all the norms and legal procedures as prosed by the government. 
    • The development and construction must be safe and sustainable reducing the green house emission.
    • The designing must ensure the maximal lightning and acoustics which improves safer living area for residential use.
    • The design must be ensure thermal comforts and appropriate humidity level for the residential purpose(Ding and et.al., 2016).

    Adaptability must be ensured for the construction building. The design chosen must be such that it must be adapted and the use of the work must be carried out which can be used for others. The design must be such that it must adapt the horizontal and vertical expansion. The design must be simple yet efficient. The design must include various concept such as structural grid, dimensions  and the floor height must ensure the flexibility and must be developed for a better sustainable layout. The functional quality must be ensured like use of hard walls for homes and commercial      use. Flexible interiors for better functionality. Integrated design approach must be developed and assurity of the design must be maintained for the better construction, the requirements proposed by the owner must be fulfilled and made with the validations(Fulk  and Connie Yuan, 2017).

    Various criteria must be satisfied for the development of the constructional site which can be load bearing capacity must be ensured and the amount of load which the the building can bear must be determined. Stability of the structure must be ensured movability and thermal expansion must be kept in mind which ensures the better working conditions. Durability, moisture resistance, fire resistance, sound resistance and thermal transmission must be ensured and the tests must be carried out which improves the stability and life expectancy of the building.

    P3 Ways in which sustainability can be promoted in the building projects

    For every constructional site the strategy developed for the material saving and time management strategy can be used to develop the profitability for the site owner. The strategies developed must ensure that the waste is not carried out with the development. Various steps are carried to ensure the sustainability:

    Prefabricating material in controlled environments:

    the material used for the construction must be such that it must not overcome the natural environmental conditions. Which can improve the quality of the building. The construction must be such that less of waste is generated. The building must be able to take over the additional load(Ganesan, 2019).  

    Mechanical constructor uses building information management(BIM) system to cut the metal duct for the providing the controlled environment by preparing a seperate channel avoiding the change in shape of the building.

    Safe energy premises must be ensured:

    Various pollution emitted out from construction site comes from the building process, energy efficient management of the constructional site must be managed to provide energy efficient environment. Using site accommodation with the use of EPC ratings which can use energy usage. Considering heat and power system which will help in being more energy efficient.

    Minimising constructional waste:

    waste making can be the largest contribution to waste system in many places, that is unsustainable for the construction to continue. Linear approach to waste management must be ensured which includes a strategy to dispose off the waste providing a sustainable environment(Gautam and et.al., 2016).

    Building a sustainable supply chain:

    Emission associated with the building environment are because of constructional use. The process which can be used for construction must include the emission of carbon footprints in the construction included within the new building which is considered as the priority. This must be included within the construction of new building and designing phase, adoption of the sustainable design and approach which can help in the minimization of waste and managing the material sources which provide a salient working environment. For a proper supply chain managing the various primary and secondary things which can used to minimising the lag time providing all the marginal needs before time which can help in the management of the work, providing workers with safety kits and minimising the barriers like checking the construction site before hand to minimise the risks involved. 

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    P4 Pre-designing studies and the information collection of the construction site

    Pre designing strategy are the evaluations and the studies carried out by the designer and the engineer before the designing and clarifying the things which are carried out for the development and working of the construction site. Pre-designing stage is the stage of conceptualizing which refers to the pre study which consists of non-design activities are carried out like the overview of the land is carried out it includes various tests such as soil test, moisture test, test carried out to check the area under any natural calamity etc. which gives a brief to the designer and engineer to carry out the task of designing(Sepasgozar, Loosemore and Davis,  2016).

    Preparations of diagrams and various other activities are carried out which can be used for the feasibility studies and options appraisals. This is the evaluations of the various possible parameters which can be used to evaluate out the design development, technical design which must pass all the criteria to conclude the constrains and changes that are not designed. Identifying the requirements of the clients and the necessary changes which can bring about the suitable constructions which are aimed in designing and developments(Zavadskas and et.al., 2018).

    There are many prior studies before designing like carrying out the site analysis which can be carried out before the designing and constructional work to be carried out this consists of the basis like weather the construction is fesable for the site this includes financial feasibility and establishment of various parameters which can be implemented with the desired design which includes the physical and environmental features of the site. This study includes the calculations and the analysation of the design which will be suitable for the existing conditions. This is carried out to evaluate various conditions which can be carried out the process so that initial designing can takes place and design thinking about the site can be carried out including micro and macro factors for the construction work. This includes the legal procedures and processes which can be used to evaluate out the conditions and barriers. Various issues are calculated out such as size of construction, topographical factors, various barrier conditions and climatic conditions which are suited for the constructions. Analysis is carried out for future development and changes for the site surroundings which includes drainage, water and road facility which can be used to considered for changing the patterns or other things which are to be kept in mind like building development nearby(Sepasgozar,  Razkenari and Barati, 2015).

    P5 Functional characteristics and design criteria for primary and secondary elements for subculture and super-culture

    Various primary elements for subculture are:

    This mainly consists of the foundation of the constructional site which is the basis of any building, it consists of the structure which lies beneath the ground level which are done to transfer the load to the ground level which can be used aims to reduce stress on the building structure. The foundation is constructed in such a way that the soil over which it lies is stressed within the safe bearing capacity. Any failure in foundation can result in failure of super-culture which can result in failure and loss of life. Foundation are of 3 types strip foundation, raft foundation, pile foundation which can be used according to the structure to be constructed as per the needs and the wants of the construction. Characteristics of the subculture is that it provides the support for the building. It is a base of the building where all the load and stresses lie which help the building to stand erect. ,minimising the damage.

    Design criteria of super-culture are:

    this mainly depends upon the structural designing layout of the building which consists of the feasibility through the engineering providing a right amount of the structure which is desired by the owner which can be used to evaluate out the effectiveness of the work by the innovation and the working strategy provided which can be done by better engineering which aims to provide a better living facility which can improve the quality of super-culture(Skibniewski, 2015).

    Using viability in design and the interior which can be used by the product which can be used to work according to the product which is presented to the client. Using designing the desirability and usability of the workplace is carried out which makes the super-culture strong and durable. It is designed according to the requirements of the users which can be construed so as to provide a safer and sustainable working atmosphere to the users.

    Various characteristics which can be used for better functioning of the super-culture. It is designed to provide a feasible and safer working environment to the users the super-culture is constructed according to the needs of the users which not only provide shelter but a better living conditions.


    P6 Techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing:

    For the construction company remediation is done prior construction which aims for the development and safer working is carried out. It includes various tests and treatments used for the betterment of the soil and improvement of structures.

    Remediation of soil:

    Biological treatments: this refers to test carried out on the soil which depends on the biological treatment of the soil is don by the breaking down of organic compounds by the means of living organism resulting in formation of COï –, Hï –O or CHï ˜ etc. this non-transferable defines weather the suitable conditions for construction is achieved.

    Chemical treatment: various tests on the soil is carried out which includes the designed structure and the amount of the chemical constituents in the soil which defines the acidic and toxic nature of the soil which can be carried out to evaluate the nature of the soil its reaction rate and various procedures are calculated out to carry out the chemical treatments of the soil(.Szczepanski, Migda and Jankowski, 2015).

    Critical fluid extraction: this is carried out to find the organic compounds in the soil which can help in the binding of the soil which can evaluate the PCBs and PAHs which can help in the extraction of fluids with the help of gases like COï –, propane , butane and alcohol which can maintain the structure with the use of soil. Which can be used to treat the soil which can bear the effective nature of the soil improving the quality and the rigidity of the soil.

    Physical treatments:

    capping: cover system which provides the stabilization mechanism aims to reducing the amount of the water which needs to lower the retension surface layering can minimise the water segregation which improves the soil structure and improves the firmness of the soil which increases the holding capacity of the soil.

    Cementitious waste forms: SPC used to stabilise high loads volatilizes the toxic elements to enter the soil and destroy its retention quality. SPC has sulphur as its chemical constituents which restricts the acids and salts attack as it melts at a temperature of 110-120 ⁰c, it improves its quality after certain years providences a binding facility(Xue and et.al., 2018).

    Electro-kinetic Remediation: this is carried out by implanting the soil with the electrodes and current is passed on which can be used to evaluate the minimise the effect off water in the soil and generates the water absorbing capacity by heat treatments. This test can eliminate water by electrolysis which is carried out which can eliminate water damage.

    P7 Types of substructure work carried out by civil engineers

    Sub-structure work carried out to improve the strength of the building various load acted upon the building are passed on downwards which can be used to eliminate the load and stresses induces on the building which can be eliminated by the foundation made for the building. It acts as a base of the building and the load is transferred by the various substructure used the substructures are dependent on the accessing the ground conditions and improving the quality of the soil. This can be done by improving the ways of reduction level of digs,pilling and underground constructions etc.


    P7Supply Arrangements for primary Services in Hotel

    There are some basic services are required in a hotel. This services are important for organization to provide better experience to the consumers. Without these services hotel management will not be able to provide better services to the consumers. These primary services are classified in different categories. These primary services are required in construction operations. Primary services provide better options and facilities to the construction team to perform their building task with high efficiency (Chudley and Greeno, 2016). Main services that are considered in the hotel are- mechanical system, electrical system, plumbing systems and data system. This are common facilities that are important for the functioning of hotel.

    Mechanical System

    This system is consists of the various supplies which are crucial for the successful running of organization.  Firefighting system, elevators and escalators, HVAC system (Heating, ventilation, and air- conditioning system), gas system and compressed air system are included in the mechanical system. For the construction site these all systems are required. For each service organization need different and independent source. For fire fighting people can use fire fighter trucks as primary action and they also can use the water of the stream in emergency fire hazard condition. For the building construction escalators and lifts are required which are mainly arranged by the construction company (Allen and Iano, 2019). By using mechanical devices and electrical motors raw material can be easily transferred on the site. For HVAC system organization can hire local services provider to make relevant arrangements.

    Electrical Services

    There are two systems organization can use to gain electrical services. For the continuous supply they can take connection form the electricity generation company who can provide them with relevant supply with required voltage level. For the back up power system generally business organizations use alternative generators to get supply in emergency conditions. For the non interrupted electrical supply company can use solar power plant which will provide electrical supply in emergency case.

    Plumbing Services

    For the water supply to the location organization can use the water stream which is near to the location of hotel. This will work as continuous supply of water. This water can be pumped through electrical motor-pump set. By storing rain water in the storage tanks. For the normal purposes this water can be used on the hotel site. For the drainage system there are two systems are possible (Wuni and Shen, 2019). The waste that can be used as fertilizer can be directly provided to the agriculture farms and other kind of waste can be disposed in the septic tanks. For the drainage of the storm water company can use emergency pump units to pump out the water of the hotel site.

    Security System

    This is one of the most important service on the hotel site because without this service hotel staff can not work efficiently. There are various kind of systems can be used in the hotel site. These devices can be classified indifferent parts, for example- monitoring, reinforcing and resolving. These steps can help the management to avoid any security issue on the site. It also can be considered as three layer protection system. Various monitoring devices like sensor, cameras, biometric security and RFID to track the movement of people in organization. This is how by monitoring system any odd condition can be addressed. The reinforcing stage can be used in condition where management or labour is facing any kind of issue. In this case various alternative methods can be used to keep system security from threat. For security of data, server and firewall system can be used. In the last step where the resolving operations are conducted, can be arranged through different security systems like malware protection system.

    This is how various systems can be used in the hotel site to full fill the requirements. For more convenience proper task management can be used which will improve the operational efficiency of hotel.

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    P8 Distribution of Primary Services

    There are different services need to be managed in the organization. In case of the building construction suite it is more important to equally and well distribute these primary services to make better arrangements. There are different methods can be used to manage the distribution of the primary services. For example all the primary services should be provided to the individual and independent group of who will look after particular service. This services should managed by the relevant people who are trained to provide this services to the particular people or site of construction. As there are various primary services are required on the building construction site.

    The classified distribution of the primary services will improve the efficiency of the building construction system. As the main primary supplies are classified in 4 types. There are at least four departments are required to manage this services effectively. The distribution of these services can be managed as per the requirement of people. For the distribution of firefighting system alternate pipeline is required in whole building to provide the facility to people to use that particular system in emergence case. The places where these pipelines can not reach, there fire extinguishers can be used as primary action (Chen, Cheng and Bai, 2017). For the electrical supply there are various methods can be used. In this service areas can be classified as per the requirements. Sections that need continuous supply can be provided with backup generation, solar plant and conventional supply. For those department that can run without electrical supply can be provided with only conventional supply. The plumbing related services can be allocated to the group of electrical and Civil engineers to provide continuous water supply to the building construction site. At last the monitoring and data security part people can use the fibre optical cable from internet services provider and it can be also connected to main supply along with back up DC supply to manage the security functions on the construction site. This is how on a building construction site primary services can be distributed efficiently.


    This report is concluding the various considerations that are ned to be taken in order to build a structure which is robust and long lasting. Various type of terminologies that are used in the building construction has been explained in report. Different techniques that are used for substructure and superstructure are analysed in the study. The civil infrastructure technology used in order to support building also has been explained in report. Various primary services for building process has been studied in report to make proper distribution of these services.

    You may also like to read: Construction Technology

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