Management and operation is most essential part of an organisation now a days. Operational management is an area of functional management in which various activities such as production, optimum utilization of resources and managing other operational aspects. The current trends is very realistic and complicated as because of involvement of technology and advance workforce in an operational aspects. This report will be carried on Starbucks which is the leading coffee company with the chain of coffee café's and outlets. This company was founded in Seattle, USA in 1971 and now they are operating nearby 28218 outlets worldwide. This assessment will focus on different roles and characteristics of the leader and manager and discussion regarding the various function of the manager. This report will also put light on various leadership situation and approaches to the operation management. Also, It will put emphasize on the importance and different factors affecting the business environment in an organisation.
P1) Define and compare different roles and characteristics of leader and manager in operations
Operation management is defined as the area of managerial concept which is concerned with designing and controlling the various process of production and restructuring the business operation again and again. In context with Starbucks, leader and manager are two most key person who is responsible for functioning and productivity of an organisation.
Person who lead their team or group of individuals on the front-line and with the purpose to motivate and coordinating accordingly to achieve well-defined goals and targets.
The common person whose tasks and responsibilities is to manage and control the functional activities of an organisation such as fund out flow, production function, staffing etc. At some context, work and responsibilities of the both key managerial person are interlinked and similar.
For big organisation namely Starbucks, it is necessary to understand and analyse skills, traits and knowledge of the leader and manager. This will be best explained by doing brief comparison are as follows:
Those people who have traits and skills such as effective personality, positive attitude speaking and listening skills, communicate skills etc. Â to lead and motivate their team member to work and perform their tasks.
Manager is the key person who have traits such as people engagement, customer enrolment and speaking and listening skills, attractive personality to inspire people and coordinate their employee to attain targets.
Roles and responsibilities
The main duty, roles and responsibilities of the leader is to motivate and enhance their team's confidence level to work and perform their tasks and work assigned effectively and with full dedication. Â
Main roles and responsibilities of manager is to manage and control functioning, operation aspects such as production, supply chain management, optimum utilization of resources etc. and coordinating their workforce and employee's
Authority and power
Leader's power and authorities are always comes from their job role and profile. Apart from this, there motive tasks is to lead and manage their team or group of individuals to achieve group's target and that will results in organisational productivity and efficiency. Â
Manager's power and authorities are defined by their senior and top level management regarding what they need to do and perform in their job tenure. Manager have different classification such as human resource, financial, operation and marketing etc. They need to be dedicated and fair towards their power and job. Â
For Starbucks, various roles and characteristics of the leader Business and manager are necessary to be discuss and analyse to understand their accountability and perfection to attain and achieve organisational goals and targets. The above discussion are as follows:
Roles and characteristics:Â
Â Leader's main tasks and role is to support and motivate their team or Â groups to make realize their actual potential or abilities. For such role, leader needs to have characteristics such as accurate listener, employee engagement, analytical an convenience skills Â and perfect attitude and personality to motivate and empower their employee to attain organisational goals and targets.
Leader needs to act as representative of the company as well as team supporter in several conditions. In context with Starbucks, leader needs to have characteristics such as confidence, motivation, personality and belief to take initiative and responsibilities to act as the representative.
Manager:Â Â Â
In context with Starbucks, manager should be able to lead and manage the workforce and overall employee in an organisation. To perform such role, a manager must have traits such as emotional stability, enthusiasm and self assurance etc. Manager should ensure that his traits and skills must contribute to various functioning of the management.
Manager is considered as the person who sit on major responsibilities. In context with Starbucks, an effective manager needs to realize their importance and potential to act as key personnel inside and outside an organisation. In context with Starbucks, manager needs to be dependent and have traits such as decision making, effective management and training skills etc.
After such discussion, it is advisable that Starbucks should provide effective training and development to their employee and workforce to be dependent and can hold such prolonged responsibilities and duties of leader and manager. Along with this, both the key personnel needs to enhance their motivation and confidence level to handle various work pressure and responsibilities in an organisation.
P2 How the role
In context with Starbucks, both leader and manager needs to realize and know their roles and function in order to attain well-defined goals and targets of an organisation. In context with Starbucks, there are various leadership situations which is necessary to know the suitability and to realize how long the leadership will be carry on. Different leadership situation are as follows:
This type of leadership allows leader to take full and ultimate control of decision making without any consultation from an authority. In context with Starbucks, leader must possess high level of power and abilities to influence their team member and individual. For this organisation, it is necessary to enhance the morale and confidence of an employee to get effective output and results. On the other side, team member are no Â more longer to take separate decision. The major disadvantage would be rising of the clashes and conflict Â
Â In this type of leadership, team members are independent and have right and freedom to participate in an activities, function and decision making of an organisation. In context with Starbucks, democratic leadership can easily apply to this organisation and would become beneficial to gain positive and effective results for an organisation.
Under this leadership, leader do not exercise their power and control on its employees directly. If an employees is highly experienced and motivated and also needs supervision, Laissez-faire leader will fail to provide feedback to their employee's who are in under their supervision. In context with Starbucks, this kind of leadership is also associated with leader who is not engaged in supervising own team, failed to provide feedback, lack of control etc. Â
Starbucks should use democratic leadership approach, where every employee have freedom and power to share their own idea and knowledge to implement strategies and plan ta attain well-structured goals and targets.
Function of manager: In context with Starbucks, this is necessary to know and analyse several function of the manager according to the Henry Fayol. These brief explanation of functions are as follow:
This is the primary and foremost function of the manager. In this stage, manager needs to plan and implement various strategies and process to achieve an organisational goals effectively. In context with Starbucks, manager needs to plan various things such as what sort of goal or targets, organisation needs to achieve and how to attain such decided objectives. After such clarification, planning comes into the light and process. Organisation needs to do brief market research before formulating various plans and strategies for achieving well-defined goals and objectives.
For example: Starbucks has decided to raise their business and customer by 5 percent of gradual increase. For this, they need to implement well-structured plan and strategies to drive it into the real business.
This is the second stage of this whole functional process. In this function, top manager used to delegate particular task and work to their employee to complete it in early time. In context with Starbucks, Â top manager needs to analyse and know the abilities and potential of each and every employee in order to achieve organisational goals effectively.
For example: Starbucks has recently decided to assign and delegate to do brief research on consumer behaviour towards coffee and its suitability in the future. For this, they setup a team of almost 4 members and assigned their duties to make it possible.
This is the third stage of the manager function. In this, manager needs to give command and order to their co-employees to perform their task and work in the proper manner. In this process, manager needs to give proper training and development to gather information and knowledge.
For example: Starbucks top manager and personnel's has commanded their employee's and workforce to conduct brief survey and market observation to implement plans and strategies to achieve their target of 10 percent rise in the business of the Starbucks.
This is the fourth stage of whole manager functional process. In context with Starbucks, manager needs to look at and control the various activities and task performing by the workforce of an organisation. For having better performance and efficiency, proper training and development is required for every employee to achieve company goals and targets in an effective and efficient manner.
For example: Starbucks needs to raise their employee's work accountability and potential to achieve the target of 10 percent in the business and customer strength. In could only be possible by which giving effective training and development to their employee.
This is the last stage of manager function process. In this, manager can hire appropriate candidate for defined and available job position and roles. In context with Starbucks, if the senior wants to hire prospective candidate, they may need to follow complete process of Â Â the recruitment along with training and development. It will be useful to gain and achieve competitive advantage of the business. Â Â Â
For example: Top executives or manager has decided to hire new candidate in their organisation to achieve the set objectives of 10 percent increase in the sales and revenue along with the customer belief and loyalty. For this, top manager will extra workforce efficiency to achieve defined goals and targets of the Starbucks.
P3 Apply different theories and Â models of approach, including situational leadership, systems
Â leadership and contingency
Complex leadership requires leader with effective skills, talent, skills, knowledge, charisma, etc. Leadership theories concentrates on successful leaders action and qualities. These theories are developed with better understanding of â expectations and requirements of individuals at workplace, how different leadership styles affects both leaders and followers behaviours, attitude, competence, etc. and suitability of various leadership behaviours in different situations. These theories also determines modern employees and their requirements in the organisation. In context to Starbucks UK Limited the leader should understand needs and expectations of employees to engage them in decision making process and to provide freedom for attaining objectives according their views and ideas. The leader can use different leadership theories to determine employees in the organisation, which are described under.
Situational leadership is an effective style or behaviour to understand individuals or employees in the organisation. It was developed by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey. This style determines that there is no appropriate style of leadership in different situations. It assumes that style should be selected according to the suitability of situation and task. In context to Starbucks Limited, this theory assumes that effective leaders are those who are capable of adapting their behaviours according to the situations. It will assist in developing individuals and groups in the organisation. Applying this theory in Starbucks Limited will establish kinship Â and motivate individuals to achieve best through their efforts and practices.
Strengths of situational leadership
- It assist leader in interpreting properly and effectively to deal with the situations.
- It creates an ordinary language of execution.
- It create confusion between employees and the organisation.
- It is a technique of management instead of leadership style.
Â System leadership approach refers to the product of the attempts of various researchers to make an in-between field of existence of all sciences. It gives a gloss of terms through which researchers from various areas can be determined and provide Â structure for the interpretation and display of actuality and phenomena. In context to Starbucks Limited this theory it help in Â knowing leaders determination to resolve problems in the extrinsic environment and relations with individuals and other elements in the organisation. It provides framework for creating ideas and reduces complexity of situations. Applying system theory in Starbucks have various advantages and disadvantages.
- It improves organisation's flexibility to accept different changes in the environment.
- It makes similarity in decision making process.
- This theory cannot be applied in smaller organisations.
- It does not define inter-dependence nature.
Contingency leadership approach concentrates on need of both situation and leader's personality to operate in that condition. It was developed by Fred Edward Fiedler. In context to Starbucks it determines two leadership styles- relationship motivated and task-motivated. It involves three factors which are - it deals with the broad atmosphere of the team and their feelings â loyalty, trust, confidence, etc. for the leader. It clarifies all information about the task and its achievement. And last is position power which refers to the award or punishment for employees or individuals for their work. Using contingency theory in Starbucks limited will have both positive and negative impacts which are given below.
- It is a flexible theory and can be used in different situations.
- It provides information about leadership styles which is very important for the organisation.
- It is complex theory of leadership, because it is difficult to apply.
- It undergoes from inadequately of literary study.
P4 Key approaches to the operation management and suggest suitable one for the store.
Operation management is the managerial concept in which various activities such as production, resource allocation and manpower empowerment are regulated and control with the common purpose to achieve organisational goals and targets. In context with Starbucks UK Limited, there are different approach to operation management which is necessary to analyse and know how operational efficiency and effectiveness can be improved and achieved in the coffee outlets of the Starbucks coffee which is as follows:
Just in time:
It is the type of inventory management method in which materials, good and labour is used to arrive in the outlets and utilized in the production process. In Starbucks outlets , store manager needs to order the raw material from suppliers according to the production requirement. Generally company uses this inventory strategy to enhance their efficiency and productivity by saving wastage of the goods and which will also inventory carrying and storage Â cost.
Total quality management(TQM):
It is the continuous process of detecting and reducing errors in the manufacturing, supply chain management, customer experience etc. It aims at making the production process accontable