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    UNIT 4 Management and Operation

    University: Regent college

    • Unit No: 4
    • Level: High school
    • Pages: 16 / Words 3875
    • Paper Type: Assignment
    • Course Code:
    • Downloads: 492
    Question :

    This assessment will cover:

    1. Elaborate the role of leader and function of a manager in M&S.
    2. Differentiate in role of a leader and manager.
    3. Give relationship in leadership and management in a contemporary management by M&S.
    Answer :


    Management & operation is a process of managing design and process of production of goods and services (Management Operations, 2018). It is used to maximize productivity of the organization by cutting its inventory cost. In this report Marks & Spencer is taken into consideration to study different aspects of Management and operations. It is a British multinational retailer headquartered in Westminster, London. It provides clothing, furniture and luxury food having one of the largest retailers in the world. In this report, roles and functions of a leader and manager are differentiated and appreciation of the roles of managers and leaders are discussed in context of M&S. Apart from that different management and leadership theories are also discussed in this report to to make organization grow sustainably.

    TASK 1

    1) Introduction and management structure of M&S

    Marks and Spencer is one of the leading multinational retailer in the world which provides services of clothing, luxury food and home products. Company was established in year 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer. It's size is big having 979 stores in UK including 615 stores which sells only food products. It has more than 60000 employees across the globe. This company also sell its products in various countries of Asia, Africa and Europe. It has opened its first foreign store in Kabul, Afghanistan in 1960 (Ahuja, 2017).

    Company follows flat organizational structure in which all employees are engaging themselves in decision making process. It offers more responsibility and accountability among employees which helps them to explain and justify the decision made by them. Each and every employee is assigned its job so to increase their performance.

    2) Roles and characteristics of manager and leader


    A leader in an organization is the person who sets goal, vision and mission for organization. Basically it leads an organization from the front in which perception and wants of leader are included. It also helps employees in order to achieve organizational goal. It sets way of attaining target of company (Brandenburg, 2014). In the context of M&S, a leader should make drafts and policies to attain the mission and vision set for company. They should motivate and inspire employee working in their organization. The structure of organization is also set by leaders in which each and every employee is divided according to the capability and ability to form a team or group.


    A manager is a person who implements the task assigned by leader in order to achieve the vision, mission and target of organization. It sets policies for employees to attain desires set by the leader. It has a staff which report to manager (Cucoranu, 2015.). It is not necessary in a company having a single manager. There are different managers in different departments such as operations manager, financial manager, HR manager, production manager etc. In the context of M&S, a manger helps in attaining goals and objectives of company. It has capability of implementing idea of attaining desires of a leader.





    A leader of M&S creates the vision and mission of organization.

    A manager focuses on setting up goals required to achieve the vision and mission.


    Leader of M&S should be innovative and creative. They have unique ideas to maximize profit.

    A manager of M&S have the tendency of learning practices from others which are common to achieve target


    A leader has tendency of taking risk for M&S.

    A manager has duty of implementing those risks which are associated in M&S.


    A leader has long term objectives for development of M&S.

    A manager has short term goals to attain pre set target of M&S.


    Leaders always grows themselves from their views and perception to enhance productivity of M&S.

    A managers is a good learner to adopt skills to make work done from employee in M&S.


    3) Roles and functions of managers and leaders in management theories.

    Contingency theory of management

    This theory emphasises on nature of leadership style to check whether style is task oriented or relationship oriented. This is best theory in increasing productivity of M&S and its employees. To analyse roles and functions of managers Henry Fayol's five functions are discussed (Fernie, 2014). In such functions planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling are exist. From such theories roles and functions of managers and leaders are discussed.

    Role of Leader

    In order to increase the productivity of M&S, a leader should set policies and set of rules to execute its policies accordingly.

    Functions of manager

    A manager has its functions of planning resources, organizing things, commanding its employee, Coordinating whenever required and controlling as per needs. These are functions of managers by which it can achieve aim and objective of M&S.

    4) Situational role of a leader and function of a manager

    In the context of Marks and Spencer, there are three types of situation arises in which role of a leader and function of manager is discussed.

    Moderate Situation

    This situation occurs when average rate of changes takes place. Here technological can be considered as an example because technology does not changes frequently (Gillen, 2015). In the context of M&S, technological changes affects working of company. To handle changes which can be beneficial for company, roles and functions are described here:

    Role of Leader:

    In M&S, a leader should be bale to check the technological changes takes place in market so that changes according to need of changing technology can also be made in company.

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    Function of Manager

    In M&S, role of manager is to implement changes which are required to compete company among its challengers.

    Stable Situation

    This situation comes when stability exists in M&S. Company policies can be taken here as policies are mostly stable and does not changes. This will help the employees in working will concentration. If changes occurs then role of manager and functions of leader are discussed:

    Role of Leader

    In above situation a leader should make other policies to increase faith among employees of M&S.

    Function of Manager

    In this situation, a manager should manage its employee to take their views in side of company so that perception of employee should not go beyond M&S.

    Fast changing situation

    This situation arises when need of customers changes frequently. In the context of M&S, the clothing trends changes frequently. In order to handle this situation role and functions of leader and manager are discussed here (Acquillat, 2016):

    Role of Leader

    A leader should make effective changes in structure of M&S so that it may meet requirements of its customers.

    Functions of manager

    In M&S, a manager should focus on implementing new policies so as to meet needs of customer.

    5) Theories which effect growth and sustainability of M&S

    There are three types of theories which effect growth and sustainability of M&S.

    Situational Leadership

    This type of leadership theory emphasises on the situation of a particular task. This theory does not rely on any theory as it sense to use theories according to situation. A good leader should focus on strategies which are best suited for task. It should be focused by a it of M&S that what cues and factors are there which can be contributed to get job done. In the context of M&S this theory can help in a great way. Since M&S is a large organization, therefore to execute a plan a specific time is required (Odoni, 2016). This theory can help in taking quick decision according to situation.

    System Leadership

    This theory is implemented in condition of complex situation where sustainable high performance is required. It enables leaders of M&S to create a system in which all employee can work with their full potential. This theory helps M&S to a great extent because a manager of M&S can create a system of working for its employees so as to increase their productivity and efficiency. According to this theory, employees engaged will do their work in a full potential (Chase, 2016).

    Contingency leadership theory

    This theory is emphasised on two ways i.e. whether it is task oriented or relationship oriented. It helps in increasing productivity of M&S and its employees. It emphasises on applying theories according to situation occurs. In M&S, this theory can help company since it allows a manager to take decision-making accordingly. It does not suggest any specific theory as it is situational.

    6) Strength and weakness of theories

    Situational theory

    This theory can help employees of M&S to act according to situation of complex.


    • In this theory there is not any specific style, therefore it excite an employee in choosing theory according to situation.
    • It motivates the employee as it give feeling of an important one person to employee.


    • If a odd situation comes which is not known by employee then this theory is not applicable to them.
    • It is a short term theory because it emphasises on a specific scenario.

    System Theory

     This theory cannot be used in M&S as it is very complex and rigid in nature.


    • It provides a presentation and phenomenon of realities.
    • It clarifies complexity of task which helps in building framework for it.


    • Various interrelated parameters makes this theory complex and rigid.
    • In case of risk, this theory is harder to implement.

    Contingency theory

    This theory can also be implemented in M&S as it helps in taking quick decision making.


    • This theory is ground able research, therefore it is highly used and implemented theory from past.
    • It provides data on leadership styles which helps organization to prepare information regarding leader.


    • This theory is not able to explain effectiveness of leaders in some situation.
    • This theory focuses on description of other leaders to follow them.

    7) Impact of managers and leaders on organization and recommendations for future improvements

    A manager and leader helps company to develop in several ways which are stated below:

    Quick decision making:

    A manager and leader helps organization in making quick decision. This can happen because a leader make such policies and manager is able to implement them. In this feature, a delay should be there to check decision made (Lummus, 2014).

    Technological development:

    The manager of M&S help company to adopt recent technology which is in market. This is happens because of applying act and rules to implement new change in company. These changes are not frequent therefore applying these should be specific.


    A manager and leader are able to motivate their employees time to time. This feature helps in increasing productivity and performance of an individual and M&S. Every employee should be motivated individually by giving them rewards.

    Co-operation among team members:

    Another aspect of managers and leaders is to increase co-operation among team members. This will help M&S to produce effective and correct output. The team members should have collaborative nature.

    Recommendation for future use

    Although M&S has a bright future in its sector but if future recommendations are required than it has to develop the pricing strategy of company. This will help company in

    fixing the price efficiently. Another recommendation will be to develop technology, so that company can deliver its products smoothly.

    TASK 2

    1). Operations management and its key approaches

    It is process of planning, organizing and supervising production and manufacturing of services. Since M&S is a grocery company which is dealing in clothing, luxury food and home products. Therefore, every product before going to manufacture requires operations management. It can be defined as order for manufacturing 2000 pieces of shirts is delivered by operations department by checking requirements of market (Omansky, 2015). Thus, it has many key approaches from which operations management is done:

    Lean production

    It is process of management in which product is manufactured by cutting wastes and ensuring quality. This feature can help M&S by reducing time of delivering manufactured goods. Cutting the wastages, help company to increase selling of its products which will increase productivity of organization.

    Six Sigma

    It is a continuous approach of providing statistical data to improve quality of product. Graphical representation shows analogue data by which information can be gathered. This feature can help M&S in clothing sector by eliminating errors in product.

    Total Quality Management:

    TQM offers all employees of M&S to participate in development of product, process and services. This theory defines long term success and customer satisfaction. It emphasises all employees to continuous improvement.

    2) Roles and responsibilities of leaders and managers in successful operation of M&S

    Manager and the leader of M&S play an important role in making effective policies, attracting customers, achieving better outcomes, motivating employees etc.. All these are essential in beneficial for the company to retain long rum sustainability at competitive market place.

    3) Importance and value of Key approaches

    Total quality management:

    In context of M&S, TQM plays an important role in maximizing profit by reducing inventory cost and reduction of waste. This approach ensures high productivity of M&S. It is a continuous process of improvement in operations management. Therefore, it helps M&S in improving its performance and services to its customers. This will help in achieving organizational goal successfully.

    Six Sigma:

    This process helps M&S in deriving data in a disciplined way to eliminate defects from products to services, therefore it is very important for M&S (Martínez, 2016). This approach has a standard quality in deriving data. The data driven can be measured to solve the problems arises in the performance of operations management of company. Thus helps in increasing overall performance of company.

    Lean production:

    This approach is useful for M&S because it helps in improving quality of product in reducing its cost. This approach also helps in delivering products and services in time which increase image of M&S in minds of its customers. Decrease in cost, enhance customers to purchase product. This will increase overall productivity of organization.

    4) Effectiveness of managers and leaders in improving operational efficiencies.

    The managers and leaders can improve efficiency of operational management by using following factors.

    Designing programs:

    A leader should design program and drafts to prepare employees in performing task. This will help in defining task allotted to them. This will increase quality of products among operational management. Designing program helps operational management in performing their task over pre-decided draft.

    Asset management:

    It is responsibility of a manager to manage assets, these could be workforce, financial asset. The management of asset helps manager to perform its task on time and with quality. In M&S, a manager should focus on managing such resources.

    5) Impact of external business environment on operational management

    The external factors which can affect operational management are:


    This factor includes politics of a country in which business is operating. If political crisis arises in that country, it will affect operation management very much. If a country increases duties on product of M&S, this will increases cost of that product. This results in price rise and thus reducing production and operation of M&S (Smith, 2017).


    In this factor economic condition of a country in which business is operating is included. Since M&S deals in luxury food products which has high price, in countries where economic condition of people is not good, product is not going to be purchased. This results to continuous decrease in productivity of company.


    These are factors in which customer's religion, family, wealth and lifestyle is taken into consideration. Since M&S deals in luxury food products, therefore it should keep special attention on religious facto of customer. Some customers does not eat non vegetarian food. Therefore this factor leads to low productivity of M&S.


    Since technology changes from time to time. M&S should focus on delivering its product online because people likes to purchase products online (Maull, 2015). If it is not done, this will definitely affect productivity and selling of products.

    6) Evaluation of application of operations management


    Since political factor affect business of M&S, it has both aspects i.e. positive and negative. The negative impact shows policies of government which harms productivity of M&S. On the other way, positive impact of politics can be subsidies provided by government to enhance business.


    This factor also have two aspects: It can affect productivity of organization because economic crisis reduce overall productivity of M&S. But if purchasing power of customer increases this will boost productivity.


    This factor can enhance productivity of an organization if company reduces its cost of luxury food products. Otherwise it will affect productivity of organization.


    This factor also affect overall productivity in two ways. In one aspect, this feature can boost selling of food items of M&S if they start to sell through online mode. Otherwise, productivity decreases as described above (Song, 2018).

    This factors can change the structure of company so it is the responsibility of manager and leader to take all those necessary decisions that won't harm the life cycle of an organisation. Here, managers need to do appropriate planning regarding all external factor where they need to predict the environment changes and must interact with their customer. They need to change themselves according to amended laws and regulations so the decision of manager should be quick and innovative to survive in the market. When it comes to leaders, they need to provide accurate knowledge regarding new technologies and must provide all those necessary equipment for the purpose of safety to employees.

    In context of M&S, Manager need to know what kind of taste can be suitable for customers with no harmful chemicals. Managers must maintain good and healthy relations with political parties. Every single decision of manager will decide the growth of M&S. They must keep updating themselves by changing the taste of food in regular interval where as leader should provide necessary product to their employee so that the quality of food products and other trending style of clothes can be made according to the demand of customer. Leader need to work harder just to enhance the working capacity of workers with better quality and taste. To manage all this types of work the managers and leaders of M&S need to work as a teams just to achieve the desire goal.

    7) Suggestions for future improvements in M&S.

    The company can enhance its business by using following suggestions.

    Reduce dependability

    The company relies on UK market very much. Reliability of company should not be on a single market. It should expand its business in Asian populated countries where there is a scope of increasing customers.

    Using all approaches:

    Since company is using only three types of approaches, instead it should use all approaches which can enhance its business to a great extent.

    Lowering price:

    The company should focus on reducing cost of its luxury products which can increase its productivity.

    Better Quality:

    The quality of products delivered should be better to capture market.

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    In this report, the role of a leader and its functions are discussed in context of M&S. Role and functions of managers and leaders are also discussed in context of situational, system and contingency leadership style. Evaluation of managers and leaders that how they affect overall performance of M&S. PEST is done to know about involvement of these external factors on operations management. Apart from that, effect of these factors in a wider business environment is explained. In the end, future recommendations are given to enhance productivity of organization. The overall conclusion of this report shows effect of managers and leaders on operations management.

    You may also like to read: Strategic Resource Management 

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