Organisation values are core principles and ethics which abide companies in every situation. It drive influences, interaction and working together to attained set objectives with behaviour, beliefs and decision – making. Values play an important role in creating positive culture in the organisation (Gao, 2017). Tesco plc is multinational retailer and groceries, situated in Engalnd, UK. In this assignment, in context of organisational structure evaluation will be done of importance of organisational design theory. Different technique and approaches will be analysed to create skilled and dedicated personnel. Research will be conducted to use knowledge for emerging Human Resource developments. At last, relationship between organisational design and change management will discussed so that responses and adaption will be evaluated.
P1 Evaluate importance of theory of organisational design
Organisational design is step-by-step methods which helps in identifying functional aspects of workflow, structures and systems, procedures and develop plans to introduce changes. In context of the organisation this process results in more effective design which leads to improvement in overall productivity. Tesco is an international company which deals in groceries, general merchandise, and retailer located in England UK. Organisational design is important to increase efficiency, more effective decision, enhance quality of goods and services, higher profits, etc. In case if company is not effective in designing its organisation it can have lack of coordination, and effective problem-solving, poor quality in operations, high staff turnover, etc. in case of organisational design every organisation is different and there is no set standard by which appropriate design can be created for the company. There are certain principles which guide management in designing organisation of Tesco plc. First is corporate self reflection which means that companies should first differentiate its abilities to serve its client in a better way so that every procedure and operation is directed in satisfying customers. Another is designed with DNA which states that company should design in right framework so that priorities can be decoded on necessary elements can be put together. This will help organisation Simple design so that there is no confusion and activities can be carried out in a smooth way. It is necessary that Tesco plc should recognise that changing organisational structure will never lead to solve business problems in anyway. So it is necessary that company tries to fix the organisational structure in the last for bringing any changes in the operations (North and Kumta, 2018).
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An Agile organisation can be defined as one of the businesses that are quick and effective toward changes in the business environment. These are also called entrepreneurial organisation which mainly focuses on customers and provide standardised and customise products or services. These organisations are categorised in continuous learning, open communication style, skilled workforce and catalyst style of leadership.
There are different theories by which Tesco plc can design its organisation and introduce changes like change theory and transformational leadership theory.
Â Change Theory: This theory was developed by Kurt Lewin, emphasis on three â stage model of change which requires prior learning. First stage is Unfreezing and in this process method is find out so that old methods and techniques can be let go by employees. This is done by strengthen positive factors towards change. Second stage is change in which movements or modifications in behaviour, feeling or attitude so that it has contributes in implementing changes in the organisation. Last stage is Refreezing in which maintaining the change so that it becomes standard operating procedure and employees did not get back to old methods again.
Transformational Theory: This is new approach of leadership which directs leaders to create positive and valuable change in team members. Such leaders focus on supporting members and business as whole, followers of leaders trust, admire, loyal and respect them. This ensures that they work harder in direction of achieving organisational objectives thus enhance overall productivity of business and its operations ( TaÃ
Å¸tan and Davoudi, 2017). In case of Tesco plc, leaders need to understand its team members so that moral and values can be developed in their leadership style. This also helps managers to bring changes in organisation by influencing employees through leadership and making them understand about benefits of introducing change in organisation. To introduce changes this theory considers four factors such as Inspirational Motivation which suggests that transformational leadership promotes vision, mission and values to members. Second is Intellectual Stimulation supports members to be innovative and creative so that they come up new ideas in implementing changes. Another is Idealised Influence believes that leaders should have same values which they want their followers to have. Last is an Individualised Consideration state that leaders should be mentor for their followers and provide them with rewards for productivity and creativity.
P2 Analyse various techniques and approaches in developing Human Resource
There are different approaches and techniques by which knowledgeable, motivated and experience employees and individuals can be analysed. Some of them are as follows
The content and process theory of motivation impact management policies and procedures so that they can study the factors which motivates employees at a workplace. Tesco plc will apply these theories so that they can develop motivated workforce in the organisation, some of them are as follows:
Content theory of Maslow hierarchy of needs: this is developed by Abrahim Maslow in 1940s. The story describe level of needs by which employer can motivate employees to work with productivity in the organisation. First name is psychological needs that represents basic needs of the human being to survive like air, water, food. These needs to be fulfilled first so that employees works effectively after satisfying the needs ( Lee, 2016). Second safety and security which relates to protection, healthy lifestyle, safety from natural and criminal incidents. Tesla PLC can provide financial security, insurance policies, and healthy working environment to satisfy these needs of an employee. Next is Belongingness which relates to affection, love and acceptance in the social groups. To fulfil this company can build relationships between this a body needs so that no employee feel in the Office premises. After the above needs a satisfied most of the human been developed need for self esteem which is being valued, appreciated and respected by their peers and management. Last self-actualisation which is desire to grow their current job positions on roles in the organisation so that they can develop their potential to the fullest. These are the factors that managers of the Tesco plc need to identify unmotivated invoice accordingly so that they can develop motivated employees for the company.
Process theory of Vroomâs expectancy theory: the theory lays emphasis on the process of the motivation and combines it with the need, equity and reinforcement theories of motivation. This clearly defines motivation as the process by which different voluntary behaviour are identified and on the basis of which employee can be motivated, the factors are Expectancy in which employer believe that their efforts will bring success in the organisation and if they work hard their performance will be enhanced. Next instrumental which believes that there is a connection in activity and goal, implies that more productivity will bring more rewards in the organisationLost his balance this is the degree up to which employee value about the reward as success (Wesselink, Blok and Ringersma, 2017).
Human capital theory refers to combination of knowledge, personal Attribute, social and competencies which I need bill and individual to create intrinsic and measurable value. This tutorial is based on the study that experiences can be translated into knowledge and skills so that organisational objectives can be achieved. From the Tesco viewpoint human capital theory is the investment by which company develop skills of its employees by giving them training and development sessions. This theory believes that this company is investing in the training then the results should be high productivity, efficiency and development in the skills so that overall performance of the business is improved.
Knowledge management is discipline which helps organisations in identifying, evaluating I'm sharing organisation documents, policies and procedures in the employees In order to implement knowledge management in Tesco plc management has to include different dimensions like strategy which is dependent on objective to create valid knowledge asset so that strategy requirements of an organisation can be fulfilled (Ji-fan Ren and et. al., 2017). Another is organisational processes which have knowledge management to effectively implement in the organisation; Technology should be properly designed and implemented so that it can fulfil requirements of all level. Management and leadership is the another factor that Tesco has to manage properly every level so that there is no confusion regarding the information that is required by employees.
P3 Use contemporary knowledge by conducting research to support emerging Human Resource developments
Human resource department performs all activities that are connected to employees of organisation starting from recruitment to retirement. Some of the major functions and process that helps Tesco plc to manage its workforce effectively are as follows:
Recruitment and selection: this is the process by which organisation in white screen and select required and skill candidate based on the job specifications. This function helps organisation to attract the qualified candidates so that they can contribute in the organisational performance. In case of Tesco plc it is one of the important process because it helps in reducing cost which is indulge in engaging unmotivated, under-qualified and unmotivated hiring of employees.
Orientation: this is one of the fundamental step which help employees to adjust themselves in the involvement of the organisation. It is also needed that in this process object is, goals, vision and mission of the business is cleared by the employer to the new personnel (Pollack and Algeo 2016). This is one of the major functions of human resource department of Tesco plc as it helps company in assigning duties and responsibilities and makes it clear for the employee to take their rule in the organisational structure
Maintaining working conditions: this is one of the basic responsibilities that any human resource department in an organisation perform. In this human resource of the company is provided with balanced and good working environment so that they can perform effectively. Tesco plc human resource department has come up with a system that provides Monitory and Non-monetary rewards to the employee for their job satisfaction.
Managing relations: this is one of the crucial functions of human resource management that tells company to maintain and build good relationships with their employees. This insures that manages can influence behaviour and productivity of this sub ordinate so that organisational objectives can be achieved. Tesco plc has policy for balance and healthy well planned relations between the employer and employee.
Training and development: this is one of the important process that human resource department of any organisation performance. By this process company attends to enhance or improve the current and existing skills in unemployed so that they can contribute more productively in achieving goals and objectives (Yeh, 2016). Tesco plc identifies the needs of training regularly and provides sessions so that there is development in the skillsSo that they can perform current and future job roles in the organisation.
These functions and processes therefore have many challenges that any organisation needs to overcome so that their human resource department can perform effectively and efficiently in managing employees. Some of them are as follows:
Management changes: as the company begin to expand its structure strategy is an internal processes management also starts changing. There is always hard time for employees to accept these changes and cope up with them. This is the time when companies can see decrease in their workforce productivity and morale. To overcome these managers of Tesco plc can focus on communicating the benefits in implementing changes by taking regular staff meetings brainstorming sessions, participative leadership style, etc.
Recruiting employees: inviting and retaining talented workforce is one of the huge investment of resources that any company does. It is difficult for companies to recruit qualified and talented candidates and retain them for long in the organisation (Long and et. al., 2016). For this Tesco plc can hire third party or any consultancy who does this job for the company and save resources and different policies can be made so that employee retention can be improved.
Workplace diversity: being an international company and operating in different countries Tesco face problems related to cultural differences and employees. This creates a continuous challenge for business to protect employees from workplace harassment and discrimination. To overcome this company can build a culture that influences on respect and team work so that productive and positive working environment can be created
P4 Organisational design and Change management relationship
Change model of quarter was built by John quarter which which break down introducing change in eight different steps. The steps are as follows:
Create urgency: it is necessary that organisation has complete idea about the success that change going to bring in the business. There is need that company create environment in which employees are aware about the problem in business and its operations and see for solution. This will help management to implement changes without any resistance as workers are already engage in finding solutions of the challenges (Holweg, Teller and Kotzab, 2016). Tesco plc in this step needs to create ground for the changes rather than implementing changes in the organisation. This will ensure that each and every employee supports and bring changes in the organisation with their own support.
Powerful coalition: it is very difficult to implement whole of the process of change by the management of the organisation that there is a need that expertise are hired. The step will ensure that communication is effective, responsibilities are delegated, less resistance from the employee and change in whole organisation is bring. By this step Tesco plc can make modifications easier and chances of success are increased.
Create vision: change its self is a very complicated process and it becomes hard for organisations to understand it. To overcome this Tesco can create vision which can be easily interpreted by the employees and work in the direction of organisational objectives. It should be simple, measurable, time specific and achievable so that it inspires workforce to work in direction of it.
Communication: It is very important in organisation communicate about divisions and benefits of the changes they are introducing in the organisational structure. This can be done with the help of expertise team hired by the organisation so that communication is continuous and affective for employees of Tesco plc.
Remove obstacles: the fourth step in the change model lays emphasis on the strength of change. In this step barriers that identified this can reduce the success in the process like employee, legislation and traditions (Mafini, 2016). Enlisted these challenges are addressed so that these could not interrupt and disturb areas in which changes are implemented by the Tesco plc.
Short term wins: in order to make change successful it is important that short wins are appreciated. Shorter targets are set for the employees and empower them with authority so that they can work with motivation and dedication to watch achieving this short-term goal.
Build change: there are many instances where change process has failed because they are not properly. Does this theory lay emphasis to sustain the change for longer term even after it has been implemented in the organisation. To assure this Tesco plc can set goals and analyse strategies that can be implemented for continuous improvement of the changes.
Changes in corporate culture: simply by just implementing changes in the organisation will not bring cultural change in the whole of the business. Does there is a need that stakeholders, employees, outside parties are encouraged to adopt these changes as well.
Even after the change model there are different type of barriers that can affect this process and leads to Celia in implementing changes in the organisation. Some of them are as follows:
Employee Resistance: One of the major barriers that any organisation faces while bringing changes in the structure of design is resistance from their workforce. This is one of the most inevitable barrier that arises due to fear of unknown, unemployment, less efficiency and uncertainties that will come with the changes (Pradhan, Panda and Jena, 2017). This makes workers to oppose the management while bringing changes and create obstacles in implementing the process.This can be overcome by increasing participation of subordinates, brainstorming sessions to come up with the idea to implement the changes and motivate employees to develop new skills. All these measures will minimise the resistance from the employees as they will be now understanding about the benefits they are getting from the changes that management is making in the Tesco plc
Poor Communication: management need to understand that changes on the ground level are made for the employees. Does it is very important that open and effective communication is maintained so that they are informed about each and every policies or procedures that are taking place in the change process. In case if there is less or no communication about the modification this will act as a barrier in the whole procedure. Does there is a need that Tesco communicate not even in the implementing face but also at the stage of planning these changes. This will be to a communication and veg ideas, solution, suggestions will be invited and involved in the decision-making for exit you think change process in the organisation.
Lack of Strategies: from the very moment in planning or implementing organisational changes it is important that organisation have clear objectives and goals. It is equally important to make strategies to reach that goal which is clear, measurable, time specified and achievable (Nicoletti, 2018). In this stage communication will play a effective role in indulging employees in setting targets for making changes. Making strategy will improve the chances of getting success in the change process and reducing resistance from employees. In order to do this Tesco plc can make those objectives which are aligned with the vision and mission of the company.
Lack of Consistency: There are many chances when organisational change suffer dissonants which is clashing of ideas, behaviours or believes of the different departments and employers. This creates barriers in change process and hinder the efficiency in implementing it. This can be workload, increase working hour and less rewards which can make employee against it. In order to mitigate this barrier it is important that management classify whole changing process into short-term objectives so that workforce get satisfaction after achieving these short-term objectives. Tesco plc can divide the whole change project into short-term tasks and activities and delegate the authority in the employees so that they feel empowered and work with full potential in order to achieve it
Cultural barrier: whenever a changing process affects more people in the organisation culture barriers can arise. In case of Tesco plc it is dispersed in different geographical areas and there are different employees from various culture. This will create barriers for the organisation because many of the staff will disagree with the impact of Changes that will have on them (Solutions and Belt, 2017). In order to minimise this barrier organisation can have complete understanding about the different cultures of employees and communicate frequently so that this can be minimised in the starting phase of change process.
Ineffective Leadership: changing process are planned at the top management level but executed at the lower level. Thus there is a need that effective leadership style is chosen before planning and implementing changes so that it is impactful in the behaviour, attitude and productivity of the subordinate ( Lee and Ha-Brookshire, 2017). Tesco PLC can adapt participative, Transformational and Democratic leadership style. This will help company to reduce the barriers and communicate effectively with the employs about the benefits and the policies that changes will bring in the business.
It can be concluded form above report that organisational values are basics principles and ethics of companies. Organisational design is sequential steps by which functions and work flow is designed in the organisation so that operations can be effectively manage. There are two theories by which organisation can bring changes in their design such as change theory which is three stage models. Another is transformational theory of leadership which believes that leaders can bring changes by influencing followers and make them work towards implementing it. There are different motivational, human capital theories and knowledge management by which motivated employees can be developed. There are different functions and process of human resource department of organisation which helps in achieving objectives and there are challenges too which need to be overcome in order to be effective. Kotter change model lays down 8 different steps in implement change in organisation and there are some barriers to change which need to mitigate so that organisation can introduce change.
Books and Journals
- Gao, Y., 2017. Business leadersâ personal values, organisational culture and market orientation.Â Journal of Strategic Marketing.Â 25(1). pp.49-6.
- Holweg, C., Teller, C. and Kotzab, H., 2016. Unsaleable grocery products, their residual value and instore logistics.Â International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management.Â 46(6/7). pp.634-658.
- Ji-fan Ren, S. and et. al., 2017. Modelling quality dynamics, business value and firm performance in a big data analytics environment.Â International Journal of Production Research.Â 55(17). pp.5011-5026.
- Lee, M. C., 2016. Knowledge management and innovation management: best practices in knowledge sharing and knowledge value chain.Â International Journal of Innovation and Learning.Â 19(2). pp.206-226.
- Lee, S. and Ha-Brookshire, J., 2017. Ethical climate and job attitude in fashion retail employeesâ turnover intention, and perceived organizational sustainability performance: A cross-sectional study.Â Sustainability.Â 9(3). p.465.
- Long, C. S. and et. al., 2016. Analysis of the relationship between leadership styles and affective organizational commitment.Â International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics.Â 3(10). pp.572-598.
- Mafini, C., 2016. The contribution of organisational climate to employee well-being.Â Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR).Â 32(4). pp.1157-1168.
- Nicoletti, B., 2018. Agile Procurement Support of the Value for the Customer. InÂ Agile ProcurementÂ (pp. 43-71). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
- North, K. and Kumta, G., 2018.Â Knowledge management: Value creation through organizational learning. Springer.
- Pollack, J. and Algeo, C., 2016. Project managersâ and change managersâ contribution to success.Â International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.Â 9(2). pp.451-465.
- Pradhan, R. K., Panda, M. and Jena, L. K., 2017. Transformational leadership and psychological empowerment: The mediating effect of organizational culture in Indian retail industry.Â Journal of Enterprise Information Management.Â 30(1). pp.82-95.
- Solutions, I. and Belt, G. B., 2017. THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIC THINKING APPROACHES ON BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE RETAIL INDUSTRY.
Å¸tan, S. B. and Davoudi, S. M. M., 2017. The relationship between organisational climate and organisational innovativeness: testing the moderating effect of individual values of power and achievement.Â International Journal of Business Innovation and Research.Â 12(4). pp.465-483.
- Wesselink, R., Blok, V. and Ringersma, J., 2017. Pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace and the role of managers and organisation.Â Journal of cleaner production.Â 168. pp.1679-1687.
- Yeh, Y. P., 2016. Market orientation and service innovation on customer perceived value: The case of supermarket retailers.Â Management Research Review.Â 39(4). pp.449-467.
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