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    Operation And Project Management


    Project management is a procedure and practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing of work  with a team to achieve desire objectives. This aids in managing the operations of organisation crucial to achieve the desire objectives. It's an application of knowledge, tools, techniques and skills of projects activities to meet the project requirement. The project is plan, organised, executed or controlled by top authority to accomplish desire objectives.   To understand this concept better Maytag company has chosen which is a American home and commercial brand appliances  owned by Whirlpool. The Maytag electronics wants to introduced large screen television in market. In this report there are following topics are covered such as: theories & concepts which are six sigma,  total quality management. The improvement plan will be implemented to analyse the  principles of operation management, project life cycle management and to critically review that management process.

    TASK 1

    P.1 The Implementation Of Principles Of Operation Management in Organisational Context.

    Operation management is process concern with controlling of production and business process  in a efficient manner to implement it' desired objectives of organisation effectively. It involves converting labour and raw material into finish goods and services as efficiently as possible to maximise profit for organisation.  It refers to managing raw material, labour, energy which are converted into goods and services (Binder, 2016). The organisational employee skills, creativity, technological and rational analysis knowledge are all very essential for conducting successful business process. It concern with daily operations of business and supports with certain strategies. It handles strategic issues like determining the size of manufacturing plant, implementing the structure of information technology and project management methods. The  Maytag electronics are  about to launch a new product with a new segment, i.e. big screen television with 58 inches. To execute the plan companies manager require to examine certain principles.  Early time organisation are concern with operations, labour and it's technology advancement. But now a days organisations are more concern about certain theories and principles like six sigma, total quality management, lean principles etc. The principles of operation management are:-

    • Six Sigma:- This approach focuses on quality of product rather than quantity of products (Floricel and et. al, 2014). The six means control limit as which are placed near the certain standard deviations from the particular distribution. This approach defines are with particular steps which arein sequence with financial strength of organisation. Tool process with six sigma approach includes potential defect calculation, trending chart and other certain ratios. This is something which organisation have to use when they wants to launch 58 inches television in same market and targeting the same customer's. The Maytag company wants to launch new TV and their main focus is upon quality  rather than quantity of product (Heldman, 2018). To execute six sigma approach it's very important for organisation to apply methodologies like DMAIC and DMADV. These are two different elements of six sigma as to implement certain factors in organisation. The DMAIC defines with measure, analyse, improve, control is used drive the improvement in existing process of  manufacture small screen DMADV defines measure, analyse, design, validate is used to create a new process. To launch the new product in market Maytag company is going to apply DMADV method and creates new process to manufacture big screen television. The six sigma approach is focuses on understanding  custoimers need better and eliminate defects in products (Jacobs, Chase and Lummus, 2014).   It's main objective to improve products and services of organisation in various departments like finance, marketing, production etc. Once the customer requirement is understand by organisation the waste and cost of production will reduce. The quality and delivery of product will increase. The manager will use this approach, as to provide effective quality to customers.
    • Lean principles:-Its a long way process which improves manufacturing efficiency, as lean can be applied to any production process, business or industry. This principles is used to inefficiency in manufacturing and also eliminate wastage.  The efficiency will improve due to which cost of production will reduced.  It's also known as lean production of cycle as to implement certain qualities of products (Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017). The waste in production line will be minimise or cost of production will also reduce by improving the efficiency in production.  The waste is crested just because of overburden in production of television and it's productivity. The lean process is defines with certain principles includes value define, map the value stream, create it's flow, establish pull and pursue perfections. The value defining means as to better understand first principle of customer value, through this value of particular situation can be defined. It's a value what is ready to pay and discover the latent need of the customers as according to that organisation will conducts it's operations. In map the steam value is mean to make the path as accomplish the value which is set to achieve organisation goals (Leach, 2014). After mapping flow is created in that waste is eliminated from value stream and after that company is going to establish the pull strategies as to maintain relationship with customers so that sales will increase in organisation. In last step organisation check whether there is continuous improvement is going on or not within organisation so to achieve certain objectives within organisation. This framework allows manager to identifies inefficiency in organisation and ways to deliver better values to customers. If principle is applied effectively then lean can create huge improvement in productivity, material costs, scrap, leading to lower cost, improved competitiveness,  efficiency and cycle time related to manufacturing. This principle is not just related to manufacturing, it can also improves inventory management, team work and client interactions. If inventory is  minimise then cost of production will reduce as well as wastage in production of TV. The customers values need to identifies so that cost is reduce and effective product is deliver to

    TASK 2

    P.2 Continuous Improvement Plan Based On Operation Management.

    It's essential for business to always improve their practices to maintain certain position in market. The position of a particular person change as according to situation otherwise this get effected in operations (Mubin and Mubin, 2016). every business required continuous improvement according to customer needs and market trends. To introduce new TV in market, manager are required to use management tools for effective implications of plan.  There are many tools and activities which are required for application of six sigma in project management to execute or to implement changes. Through applying these principles completion will quash and improvement is possible in business production. When it's come to streamline work and reduce  the waste then continuous improvement is required. As it's considered as on going process of improving products, services and processes in introducing new products. This delivery is required constant evaluation and change so further improvement is required in business as well. The principles are taken through which cost will reduce, quality improves, safety is provided to customer as well as society and deliver effective products to customer. With the help of these principles manager can examine the flause on regular basis and also conduct continuous improvement in business. The principles also help manager to identifies problems in production process. The implementation of process are:-


    Principles/ Approaches

    Implementation of principles


    Six sigma

    The Maytag company wants launch 58 inches television in market. To start manufacturing  for television company will used six sigma approach as this will help them to focus on quality rather than quantity of product. If product have excellent quality then it become company to introduce product in market. If quality of product is higher and meets customers requirement then company can set higher price for it's product. The manager will always monitor it's TV  production with the help of six sigma approach while manufacturing product so that to maintain quality of product.  The timely monitor will examine flause that effects the production of company. Once the customer need is identified or understand by manager then wast can easily be  eliminated from production. To reduce the cost of production it's essential for organisation manager, firstly understand customers needs. This approach helps manager to identifies errors in production development process and eliminate defects through which cost will reduce and quality of product will improve.


    Lean principle

    The Maytag electronic company wants to launch large screen television in market. If they want to minimise  their production cost it's very important to also minimise the waste in production. Wastes in production is controlled then organisation is being able to minimise cost with effective production of television. Once the wastage is minimise then company is been able to launch it product at any price.  With help of this principle manager can minimise it's production cost, so that product can be launched at any price. Lean principles is used in production process to minimise cost and wastage. The customer value is defined then it become easily manager to reduce the wastage. The inventory in production system will reduced according to which wastage is reduced as well as cost in production line of large screen  TV. The work in business should not be delay otherwise wastage will increase. These are the functions through which cost can be reduced.  The manager should always check in between production whether wastage are properly maintaining or not in company.



    When organisation is concern about safety of products then they follow sustainability  approach to introduce new large screen television in market (Nenonen and Vasara, 2013).  The society have to safe in every aspects. Products which company manufacture shouldn't harm society.  As this concept is based on the premises maintaining quality of life, through this local economic vitality as job opportunity will also increased. If this principle is applied then organisation don't harm environment. As company can be customer centric and society centric as well. The impact of negative environment will reduce with the help of this principles.


    Business process re-engineering

    This principle is followed by organisation when they want to delivery effectively it's  TV to their customer. The Maytag used this approach to conduct certain improvement and innovation in their business. This principles helps them to focus on customers rather and accordance to which effective deliver of product is possible. This approach is  applicable when organisation wants to make their strategies from the scratch so that to delivery television effectively to customer from all over the world. With the help of this principle manager will starts rethinking and use the blank sheet paper to make new plan as to deliver more values to customers. The manager have to adopt new value system that emphasises on increasing needs of customers. Company can use advance technology to deliver effective products to customers.


    TASK 3

    P.3 The stages of Project life Cycle in Business.

    Business Case

    The Maytag electronics is a part of whirlpool company based in America. They do production  in refrigerator, washing machines etc. As they decided to launch new products in market which is large screen television  more than 58 inches. It's a large project for company so it's very important for them to make objectives, vision, mission differently for projects. These help manager of Maytag electronics to launch television effectively in market and employees also get benefits with this.

    Vision:- They want to be top large screen television manufacturing company.

    Mission:- To provide effective quality to customer at minimal cost.

    Objectives:-They wants to increase overall sale of 15% and also increase customer base.

    • They want to increase 25% of market share and more 20% of revenue from previous year.  
    • Reduced the manufacturing cost and sale the television at lesser price.

    The Stages Of Project Plan Are:

    • Project Initiation:-It's a first phase of project life cycle, when organisation wants to change and introduce television in market. It's very important for Maytag company to defines desired goals and projects which they want implement in broad level. This phase will be starts with business case and to test whether you are feasible or not in business. The feasibility is important to have in organisation as to implement changes in organisation  (Rolstadås and et. al, 2014). to introduce large screen television in market then it's essential for Maytag company need to conduct research at initial level to introduce product effectively. The initiation is all about when company wants to launch new large screen television in market. The tool which is used by manager is having clarity in idea before initiating it's project into reality. To have clear cut idea is important otherwise it become difficult to launch effective television with minimal cost. The autocratic leadership is followed at this stage, as leader wants to initiate idea according their perspective. The leader don't wants to involve their employees at initial stage of production.
    • Project planning:-This phase is focuses on successful project management in Maytag In this objectives are made and pathway is develop for the employees to work on it. This phase starts with setting certain goals as to introduced new project in market. It's essential for organisation to set the goals according to SMART objectives. This provides the clear understanding of implication of goals setting. The SMART objectives are made accordance product Maytag wants to launch in market. As they wants to launch 58 inches television in market. The objectives need to specifies, measurable, achievable, relevant and time bound so that to effectively launch large screen television. The appropriate survey and questionnaire are conducted to launch television. The democratic leadership style is followed by organisation manager so that more ideas can be gathered through employees to effectively plan the project.
    • Project execution:- To introduced 58 inches television in market, it requires proper execution of project as accordance with SMART objectives. To execute plan it's essential to have clarity with tool they should used. Maytag company is focus on quality so they used Total quality management principle to properly execute it's plan. This approach helps them to maintain quality of product and timely monitor the whether quality is maintained or not in production. The manager will used autocratic leadership style as wants to manufacture products accordance with their  ideas.
    • Project performance:- In this stage projects is monitor accordance to standards which are made to reduce cost and maintain effective quality in business.  The performance is checked whether the television are manufacture with   high quality and with minimal cost or not. Key performance is a tool which is used by manger  to examine performance of television. The delegative leadership style is followed manager in which group members have authority to take decision s according their opinion. The changes in television are take place accordance to employees.
    • Project closure:- It's a stage where overall complete project is represented. The last step is to close projectswhich is to manufacture large screen television. If standards are meet according to objectives then project will close. (Sears, and et. Al, 2015). Its a phase when company deliver it's product to customer. The approach which they use is Business process re-engineering to launch new television in market. The autocratic leadership is followed by manager, as they don't required ideas according to employees.

    Work Breakdown Structure

     It's a structure according to which key projects delivered in organisation as to manage the sections of work within team. In this management is delivered in the from of oriented hierarchy.  It's defines the scope of organisation as Maytag wants to introduce new range to television in market.

    (Source: Work breakdown structure. 2019)

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    Gantt chart

    It's a historical bar chart is develop as used for production control tool. This help organisation in appropriately scheduling the plan, coordinate accordantly and track the specified task in a project to implement changes in organisation. It's a simple application of vision or to manage the project track  (Verzuh, 2015).

    TASK 4

    P.4 The Implication of Project Life Cycle In Certain Situation.

    To effectively launch it's project company uses certain tools. The large project requires more cost as compare to small project in company. It's Maytag manager responsibility to effectively manage which approach is suitable to which situation as to launch large screen television in market and small changes in refrigerator with design. The difference of large project with small project with help of project life cycle are:-


    Large project

    Small project

    Project Initiation

    At stage of project initiation company will use tool like total quality management. As their core area in production is quality of products while manufacturing large screen television. The Maytag manager will use this approach to effectively manage the quality with minimal cost of production. This an effective approach used while initiating project. The clarity in vision  and mission of projects to employees of Maytag electronics. To launch large projects it's essential for them to use autocratic leadership style as ideas are launched accordance to manager perspectives and they considered employees ideas.

    To modify the design of refrigerator in Maytag electronics. In small project this approach is not useful as project is all related modifying design. They are concern with quality of product. They are required to use another approach as implement small project in company. The Business process re-engineering is used to modified the design of refrigerator.

    Project planning

    While planning as to introduce new large screen television in market. The Maytag will use survey and questionnaire tools to collect the information of market, trends and preferences of customers. This approach is helpful in minimising the cost of products. In between products changes are not required as they heavily conducted the research. If planning is effective then organisation is not require to change it's production line.

    The small projects in Maytag not required to use these tools as to modify the design. If company use tools like surveys and questionnaires for small projects then huge cost is incurred which is not beneficial for company.

    Project execution

    To execute project effectively in Maytag organisation manger will use Total quality management tool as examine in between production whether they effectively  manage quality of project in production of television. The quality is main core in large projects and as organisation is launching new product line. So it's their responsibility to make sure quality will effectively manage.

    In small projects also manager should use this approach as their main concern is all about designing refrigerator effectively. So, quality is required to be manage properly in modifying refrigerator.

    Project performance  

    This examine with the help of  key performance tool of project that quality is managing with minimising the cost of production in Maytag organisation. The performance is required to manage effectively otherwise it become difficult to manage higher quality in products.

    In small projects also they use this tool but it is less effective. As they required more cost to use these tools and strategies as well in organisation.


    From the above report, it be concluded that organisation wants to launch certain televisions. The certain approaches are used to implemented changes in organisation so that to accomplish the objectives. The organisation is applied six sigma approach so that quality is maintained and   lean principles are applied to manage the delivery and cost of production in organisation. Then implementation is take place according to certain bases are identifies which approach required to applied. The project life cycle model is applied to identifies it's effectiveness and importance whether it's important to introduce new product. The target customers are also determined. The organisation is required to analyse effectiveness of project life cycle.


    • Binder, J., 2016. Global project management: communication, collaboration and management across borders. Routledge.
    • Floricel, S. and et. al, 2014. Extending project management research: Insights from social theories. International Journal of Project Management. 32(7). pp.1091-1107.
    • Heldman, K., 2018. PMP: project management professional exam study guide. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Jacobs, F. R., Chase, R.B. and Lummus, R. R., 2014. Operations and supply chain management (pp. 533-535). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
    • Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H. R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Leach, L. P., 2014. Critical chain project management. Artech House.
    • Mubin, S. and Mubin, G., 2016. Risk analysis for construction and operation of gas pipeline projects in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    • Muller, R., 2017. Project governance. Routledge.
    • Nenonen, S. and Vasara, J., 2013. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics. 19(2). pp.168-183.
    • Nicholas, J. M. and Steyn, H., 2017. Project management for engineering, business and technology. Routledge.

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