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    Child Development Education


    The educational setting is a place where staff and students are treated fairly and where their needs and requirements are valued. Equality in education means to be fair with all individuals so their potentials are fulfilled without any discrimination. However, this can be challenging in a society where there are many differences in terms of gender, religion, race, age, and disabilities and this is why issues of inequality and discrimination such as bullying, and harassment develop. In this report I will explain issues faced in terms of educational inequality and outline the policies and procedures that aim to prevent and deal with these problems.

    Functionalism and Marxism

    Functionalism’s (Emile Durkheim, Robert Merton a structural consensus theory) main principal is to explain about how society and social institutions such as family, school and government legal system can work together for the greater good. Every organisation in this society has a specific role to play to maintain and improve society. In this theory, they have a consensus to build the functional society. Everyone must work toward the common goal in society and maintain the stability and social order in every social institute.

    Marxism (Karl Marx a conflict theory) on the other hand divides society into two classes, the ruling class and the lower or working class termed the Bourgeoisie and Proletariats class respectively. Marx’s theory explains how the education, media and law institutions are used by the  ruling society. He explains that achieving social mobility is more difficult for the working class. Marxists believe that due to this the elite control the working class not with physical force but with different ideas that cause the conflict between two classes.

    Economic issues produce the, rich, middle and poor class. Marxist believes that the capitalization helps to improve the economy in our society by providing education. The capitalization is important to shape the educational system and help to improve the economy. However Marxist theory capitalization society where inequality exists such as power, wealth and opportunities.

     In our education system in school where your achievement and grade is based on your hardworking and top qualified students get the top jobs. The cause of success and failure depend on the class of parents because if the parents are the top class, they know how children improve their marks. so, they provide more duration to stay in education (bowls and Gintis). According to the Marxist, the progress or grades of pupils depend on the rich and poor class in society. UK government statistic report of GCSCs exam report of lower, middle and poor. threshold includes in the graph. In the graph 1 shows they vary from ever year .21%students who have eligible for free school meal hardly managed to get 5 GCSCs out of 75% top achiever. In graph 2 show the eligibility of free school meal between different ethnic groups. It shows percentage of British white people whose eligible for free school meal is high.

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    These GCSE results are disadvantages for the poor school results. These background issues influence education system by not get enough support from parents and families. Pupils who’s from poor background families giving less result as compared to the pupils belong to good families.

    Every child matter:

    Every child matter policy was launched in 2003.Children from any background, every child matter support every child to stay safe, be healthy, achieve economic wellbeing and make positive contribution. These policies attached that is necessary for other agencies partnership it include school, community center, children center, early years health services and play worker. Every child matter policy cover from birth to up to age 19 .in 2010 under David Cameron government some movement away from every child matter 2003. when working with children keep the child away from any risk and keep the child safe. This policy for any organization or professionals whose working with or related to child matter. These include teacher, social workers, police, children home and foster carer.

    Now, all organization working with children follow the child protection policy and ensue that despite of their age, gender, ethnicity, and background protect the child from the risk of any harm. The ‘safeguarding organization’ provide services for child welfare. child protection is a very serious matter and ensures that every child safe from any kind of harm like child abuse, bullying, and other serious problems. If any concern related to a child then speak to the child and gain some information then take further action.

    Child protection issue:

    Child protection is an important issue in an education setting. The department os education is responsible to protect and promote the welfare od children and take an action under the child protection 29 June 2018 safeguarding partner, who is responsible to support children from any harm. Safeguarding partner working with other agencies and safeguarding partners include local authorities, police and clinical commissioning group. The welfare of children is an important matter and local authorities responsible to notice if the child is in danger take an action. If the local authorities assessed that child needs protection. The local authorities and social worker under section 17 decide about the next step required for child safety. if the child is in danger, the police take the child in safety place for up to 72 hours.

    Attained AND Achievement :

    In primary and secondary school child progress report is based on following factors such as special educational needs, different ethnicity and language barrier. First look at the child level what they achieve and what they expected. so, overall data collecting from school is based on child achievement and attainment. Finally, the governor making the report, it shows the school performance that based on the overall data they get from the school.

    Pupil attainment and learning progress effect on overall grades and help to make the Ofsted report. Attainment and achievement measured according to the average point score AVS, value-added and contextual value added CVA. CVA include overall child prior attainment in math and English, ethnicity, gender, and special education need. These all consider when making the child percentage report. This graph 5 shows the achievement progress of pupil below the average and above the average and its start from KS2 end with KS4.The graph 6 show the attainment between an ethnic group of children that show the Chinese group at the age of 11 get the highest percentage in English and math results.


    In community, different characteristic group of people live together. They have different mixed community have different faith, culture, ethnicity, language, gender, and different interest. Some areas in UK people creating disturbance because of the discrimination and inequality between facing difficulties working in mixed communities. To remove the inequality and diversity between people, the new policy introduces in 2001 is community cohesion.

    Community cohesion:

    The community cohesion (riot and disturbance in England in 2001) term was introducing to remove the diversity between the communities, especially those from different background and ethnic and beliefs. The aim of community cohesion is to make the community feel comfortable and confident between the mixed community. In the UK some areas had a lot of riots and disturbance, this help to build the cohesion between minority and majority communities and people feel about their local areas. This report accepted by government and local agencies. This policy adopted in the UK and many volunteer agencies, local government and officers spread some new ideas and developed new strategies to remove riots and disturbance. Now its approach to the other countries as well. Community cohesion even improves the people quality of life. For example, in schools any kind of performance everyone get a chance to perform on stage such as singing, dramas and assembly time. Teachers choose the mix pupils to work together in groups and feel comfortable.

    Macpherson report:

    The MacPherson report published on 22 February 1999. This report led by son William Macpherson for judicial inquiry in 1997. This report made 70 accommodation to remove the racisism and create fairness in policing. this report focuses on metropolitan police. the term ‘institutional racism’ has a great impact on metropolitan police. The polic pay more attention for an incident related to racism. This report defines racist incident ‘any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or an other person’. After the adoption of this definition universally and other agencies. The report of hate crime had been increased to around 60,000 a year. The equality and human right commission report that hate crime incident increase about 44% after the Macpherson report.

    Equality act 2010:

    The equality act 2010 simplify the law and replaced all the old law. This law protects the area from discrimination and provides changes in an education setting. The act introduced the ide of ‘protected characteristic’ that include age, disability race, religious, pregnancy or maternity, marriage. the act provides legal protection to build equality.

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    1. Pragnancy or Maternity:

    Pregnancy or maternity covered in this equality act 2010.It provides the protection for those whose pregnant or has recently had a baby because they treated less favorable. Local authorities have some duty to look and provide support those pupils who have some health issues. (Thompson, 2006)


    Racism is a socially constructed term not related to biologically it include color ethnic and nationality in our society (Do Minelli, 2018).In education setting always check no one can’t be treated less favorably and less treated. During any application process never imposed any penalties on ethnic minority background pupils

    3: Religious and Belief:

    Religious discrimination term implies discrimination against individual or group based on religious or belief. In religious discrimination in the UK their different religious people live in one community. It is necessary to noticed that where any discrimination involved because the commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia (2004) point out that one third British Muslims are not Asian and half of all Asian are not Muslims.So, when working some are religious and ethnic minority. Sectarianism is helpful for understanding a different kind of discrimination interact and reinforce each other.: (GOV.UK, 2018)


    In this act, the protection related to disability discrimination is different from the others. Disable person should be treated more than the normal person. In education setting always takes pupil equally but for disabling people treat differently and more favorably.

    PART 2

    Issues associated with at risk learners

    In primary schools, pupil needs special attention and care to learn a thing, understand the subjects and develop their potentials. Since community is basically classified on the basis of rich and poor people (Abdullah, Doucouliagos and Manning, 2015). Therefore, same thing is applied in schools and other organisations also, where pupil are differentiated on the basis of their categories. Here, students belong to rich family get special care and attention by teachers. Educators also give them special preferences while giving education. In despite this, children belong to poor families face various difficulties in learning and developing their potentials.

    Also, parents of high standard provide extra facilities for kids to develop their potentials and achieve high grades in respective subjects. Thus, this would lead to create inequality in education for pupil that rise barriers in achievement of higher grades accordingly. Similarly, some children having special educational needs also face difficulties when they integrate in normal schools, special or remedial schools and more. These pupils face difficulties in learning a thing where students of same age can easily understand the same. But in primary sectors, all pupils having special educational needs are also enrolled with normal one. This would lead them to face difficulties like bully, harassment and other activities which impact on mind of special needs of children negatively.

    Poverty is considered as main reason behind inequality in education system which widens the gap of children belong to upper and lower-class. The socio-economic status of communities has a negative impact on education of children. In UK, more than 17% children live in poverty where, majority of their families headed by a single head parent (Kirshner, 2015). Therefore, children live in such environment, face lack of educational facilities at their home. While, despite these, children of high states develop their potentials more rapidly and due to available of good educational facilities at home and schools both, they achieve high success. Along with this, progress of pupil in primary sectors also measured on the basis of racial ethnicity and special education needs. Therefore, attainment and achievement can measured as per special education need. Pupil in primary sectors, due to lack of equal educational facilities face problems in learning and achieving progress in some special subjects like Math and English.

    A range of strategies and initiatives to support needs of risk learners

    As future of every society is in hands of young people, therefore, it is essential to reduce inequality in education system (White, Mammone and Caldwell, 2015). As such inequalities are mostly faced by pupils belong to poor families, different ethnicity and languages.  Therefore, in order to cater special educational needs of risk learners, it is essential for primary and secondary educators to adopt a range of strategies and initiatives. It includes plotting a clear strategy for improving and catering needs of educational experience of pupils by reducing inequality gap. Schools also need to determine how they will respond to the special requirements as per SEN (Special Educational Needs) and Disability Acts as well as highlights the same in their admissions policy.

    Some action needs to take for ensuring that pupils under primary sector have accessed and make progress across their curriculum (Entwisle, 2018). It includes: Access to Literacy/Numeracy/ICT; Teacher planning; Differentiation; IEPs in relation to curriculum and Resources. These kinds of actions will prove helpful to ensure that all roles and responsibilities of governor, co-ordinators and the subject leaders are performed in effective manner (Allen and et.al., 2013). Furthermore, it also gives advantages to determine ways by which educators can implement actions to identify needs of pupils and measures the effectiveness of such curriculum in terms of catering the needs, attainment and progress. This would also considered as good evidence for self evaluation processes in primary schools as described in Ofsted School Self Evaluation Form.

    Policy and procedures

    The Special Education Needs of Policy is considered as the most important policy which are developed by primary school in UK. This would help in determining how teachers and other educators can cater the special educational needs of pupils. This policy also includes the statutory requirements as well as educational practices to provide effective education to pupils of primary school. Here, guidance which determines what has to be included in practices to meet special educational needs policy is found in The Education Regulations Act 1999 (Duncan and Murnane, 2014). The objective of SEN Policy is to make provision for students with special educational needs. It provides descriptions of how educators and governing body will contribute efforts to meet special needs of risk learners. Here, they have to appoint a governor whose main responsibility is to identify special educational needs and make provisions to meet same. It is his duty also to ensure that entire governing body i.e. educators are kept informed about how they meet the statutory requirements.  

    Sociological theories

    There are various reasons present in society that leads to create inequality in education system and arise difficulties for pupils in primary schools to achieve progress. Therefore, to improve educational system and reduce gap due to inequalities, government support schools to cater special educational needs of people (Duncan and Murnane, 2014). This would can be reflected from sociological theories. It includes Functionalism which described how communities and social institutions like governing bodies, schools and family ones are working in collaboration to make effective educational system. This theory reflects the main goal behind collaboration i.e. to maintain stability and develop policies to reduce inequality gap within educational system. Similarly, through Marxism theory that majorly measures conflicts arise among communities due to racism and gap between ruling and working societies (Troyna, 2012).

    It is argued here that pupil belongs high or rich class has high potentials to achieve good grades in education. While, pupil due to lack of effective education facilities receive less graders. Therefore, success and failure of achievement of grades is totally depended on class or status of family of pupils. Therefore, as per both sociological theories i.e. Functionalism and Marxism, it has been argued here that the main reason behind inequality in education is poverty. This would create discrimination within educational institutions where pupils belong to rich class receive special attention of educators and high facilities that leads to develop high-potency in them. Therefore, if society, governing bodies and educational institutions will work together then they can build effective policies to eradicate inequality in educations and cater special education needs of primary and secondary students.


    It has been concluded from this assignment that child development can only be achieved if inequality from educational system can be reduced. As youth are future of every country and community therefore, it is essential for governing bodies and educational institutions to work together. This would help in developing policies related to reduce inequality in education. As through some sociological theories, it has ascertained that the main reason behind inequalities is poverty. Due to this issue, pupil belongs to poor class face difficulties in getting progress in achievement of good marks.


    • GOV.UK. (2018). Equality Act 2010: advice for schools.
    • Thompson, N. (2006). Anti-discriminatory practice. Hound mills: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Do Minelli, L. (2018). Anti-racist social work.
    • Thompson, N. (n.d.). Promoting Equality. 4th ed.
    • Moonie, N. Bates, A. Perkins, D. (2004). diversity and right in care. Oxford: Heinemann Educational.
    • Beckett, C. and Horner, N. (2006). Essential theory for social work practice.
    • Banks, S. (2006). Ethics and values in social work. Hound mills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Thompson, N. (2006). Anti-discriminatory practice. Hound mills: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Led with, M. (2015). Community development in action. Policy Press.
    • Gilchrist, A. and Taylor, M. (2016). The short guide to community development. 2nd ed.
    • Troyna, B. (Ed.). (2012). Racial inequality in education. Taylor & Francis.

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