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    Effects of Human Behaviour on Infectious Diseases

    University: Griffith University

    • Unit No: 3
    • Level: Undergraduate/College
    • Pages: 6 / Words 1606
    • Paper Type: Assignment
    • Course Code: A/507/0678
    • Downloads: 438
    Question :

    This assessment will cover the following questions:

    • Explain the terms immunity and immunisation.
    • Evaluate the ways in which personal hygiene and the use of antiseptics can prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
    • Identify the ways in which pathogens may be spread among the people.
    Answer :


    Human health can be define as a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being in order to lead a healthy life. It is a central part of human well-being and happiness. It makes a crucial contribution to overall economic progression, as being free from any illness and diseases will lead to a healthy population which eventually makes them more productive (Roenneberg and Merrow, 2016). The following report is focusing on the nature of micro-organisms. Furthermore, it will cover the effects of personal behaviour on the spread of infectious diseases. At last, effect of medical research and development on spread of infectious diseases will be discussed.


    1.1 Define the terms infectious diseases and pathogens

    Infectious disease can be defined as a medical condition which is caused by number of pathogenic organisms such as virus, bacteria, fungi and may more. It is a communicable diseases and can be pass from one person to another directly or indirectly (Wright and Kelly, 2017). Signs and indications of such sort of diseases are totally depended on the organism causing that particular infection.

    Organisms that cause infectious diseases are known as pathogens. It is basically an infectious agent that cause illness to its host. They weakens the immune system of the human body by directly penetrating through the skin, body fluids and many other forms. Some of the common examples of pathogens are virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites.

    1.2 List the characteristics of virus, bacteria, fungi and Protoctista

    Bacteria, virus, fungi and Protoctista are all infectious agents that cause infectious diseases to the body. They all poses different characteristics according to their functions. Some of their characteristics are listed below.


    • They are consist of a protein and nucleic acid.
    •  The size ranges from 20-250nm.
    • They are dependent on the machinery of host cells.


    • They are very small in size ranges between 0.5 to 5 micrometer.
    • They have a prokaryotic cell structure.
    • Cell wall is made up of proteoglycan.


    • They can be multicellular of unicellular.
    • Contains a cell wall which is made up of chitin.


    • They are eukaryotic organisms.
    • They have membrane bound organelles and have nucleus.


    2.1 Identify the ways through which pathogens are spread

    There are number of routes through which a pathogen can penetrate into a human body. It could be through mouth, eyes, nose or may be through some bleeds or wounds. Some of the infectious agents can be spread through direct connection with body fluids, skin, mucus membrane and many more (Hausen, 2016). However, there are some of the common vehicles through which they are spread such as through water, contaminated food, blood and through vectors. However, thee are three main ways through which they can be spread through person to person. It could be through air, by direct contact within individuals or through touching surfaces or objects which are contaminated. Having contaminated food or drinking poor quality of water can also a reason of ingestion of pathogens.

    2.2 Discuss the methods through which personal hygiene and use of antiseptics can prevent the spread of infectious diseases

    Personal hygiene can be define as applications which are generally perform by the individuals in order to protect their health conditions and to maintain a healthy life (Baum, 2016). There are number of personal hygiene methods that can be use by individuals in order to prevent infectious diseases. Some of the methods are given here.

    • Use hand sanitizers and keep the hands clean as human beings perform number of activities through their hands. Thus, it is important to keep the hands clean.
    • Use antiseptics in case of any wounds or bleeding and make proper use of bandage to prevent the spread of infection.
    • Assure that all the food items has been placed in a clean place without any contamination.
    • Dispose the waste properly.

    2.3 Describe the personal, social, economic problems related to HIV

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is a virus that directly impacts on immune system of the human body and makes it unable to fight with infectious diseases. Individuals who are going through some mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, sexual or physical abuses poses a higher risk of getting HIV infection (Markowiak and Śliżewska, 2017). Such problems are consider as personal problems.

    Social problems associated with HIV are low financial status, unemployment, need for shelter, lack of support from communities and many more. However, economical problems with HIV are less number of healthcare professionals, low level of technology, low level of productivity.

    3.1 Define the terms immunity and immunisation

    Immunity can be define as the ability of an individual to fight against number of infectious diseases. It consist of both specific as well as non specific components. Basically there are two types of immunity which is active and passive. When number of antibodies transfers through on person to another by means of transfusion is known as passive immunity. Whereas, involvement of B cells and Cells to fight against diseases is consider as active immunity.

    Immunisation can be define as a method of protecting or making a person immune through number of infectious diseases.

    3.2 Define antibody formation resulting from both natural and artificial exposure to antigens

    Antibodies are the immunoglobulin proteins which is secreted by B- lymphocytes. When any antigen gets binds to the surface of B-cells, it makes the cells to divide and develop into a set of identical cells known as clone (Kumar and et.al., 2017). Then this develop B cells secrete number of antibodies in the blood stream. However, artificial antibodies can be formed in in-vitro conditions by completely eliminating the process of forming it naturally. They can be produce by conducting some experiments in laboratory conditions and providing optimum temperature.

    3.3 Outline the effects of use of antibodies in the control of a disease

    Antibodies are responsible for fighting against any pathogen which enters into a human body. It act as a immune system scouts. Their main role is to analyse the antigens, bound to them and find out the same antigen in the immune system so that they could be able to destroy it (Steffan and et.al., 2018). Antigens could be virus, bacteria or other certain chemicals. It is important to know that each antibody is specific to only one antigen. However, even after tha infection has been eliminated, antibody still reminds of it. So that next time if the same antigen tries to invad ethe immune system, they are ready to fight against them. Antibody will be instantly attach to the antigen and make T cells and phagocytes to destroy it.

    3.4 List the effects of mass immunization programs

    Mass immunizations can be refer to as providing immunizations to a large propotion of population at one or more than one location within a short period of time. The major objective of this program is to improve the health of population.

    • It protects individuals from getting serious illnesses and help to prevent diseases such as paralysis of limbs, brain damage, polio, amputaion of arm, hearing problems and many more.
    •  It also prevents some major disease within population such as mumps, measles, whoophing chough which all are consider as a serious threat for a human health.
    • Mass immunization program reduce the number of deaths which occur every year due to occurance of infectious diseass.
    • It is one of the major public health achievments.

    3.5 Outline the long term effects of overuse of antibiotics on pathogen resistance

    There could be some serious effects on the human body for the overuse of antibotics for pathogen resistance. Misuse or overuse of antibiotics can be result in formation of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Taking a large amount of antibiotics very often or may be for some wrong reasons can change pathogens in a way that antibiotics stops to work against them. This process is also called antibiotic resistance or bacterila resistance (Watson and et.al., 2018). Due to this overuse of antibiotics, there are some bacteria who are now resistant to even powerful antibiotics that are available. IT is a majorgrowing problem which is increasng thse days. Bacteria becom eto multiply throughout the body as antibiotics loose the capacity to fight against them. 


    From the above study, it can be concluded that health play a most crucial role in the life of a human being. Health is basically a condition of being free from any sort of illness or diseases. However, there are number of [pathogens like virus, bacteria, fundi that can be resulted in reduce health conditions by directly penetrating in the body through different modes.

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