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    Health Care Practices and Methods to Reduce Obesity in Old Age

    University: BPP UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY

    • Unit No: 2
    • Level: Undergraduate/College
    • Pages: 30 / Words 7539
    • Paper Type: Assignment
    • Course Code: NUR7003
    • Downloads: 273
    Question :

    Introduction

    In this section, here the disease will be discussed and its impact on the people. This section will be comprised of following sub section like overview, aim and objectives and justification

    Literature review

    This will include -

    1. Prevalence of Obesity among Older Adults
    2. Causes of Obesity in Older Adults
    3. certain factors that are contributing to obesity will also be included.
    4. Other causes of the disease
    • Consequences of Obesity in Older Adults
    • Prevention or interventions to address Obesity in Older Adults
    Project outline -
    1. Plan, do, act and study
    2. Project Estimation technique
    • Project timeline
    • Project methodology
    • Risk management-
    1. Risk management process
    • Success factor
    • Leadership and management theories
    • Critical success factor
    • Recommendations
    • Conclusion
    • References
    Answer :

    INTRODUCTION

    In recent times, obesity has become a common disease or health care problem in old age people. this is because of improper lifestyle and change in eating habits of them. also, due to increase in obesity people are suffering from other diseases as well such as stroke, high BP, sugar, etc. it has resulted in impacting on their mental and physical health. Besides that, due to mental disorder or depression people are eating more diet food. It has affected on their eating habits. This has led to impact on their children and family as well. Along with it, obesity has led to rise in risk as well of other things like back pain. Thus, it has become a public health concern. However, government and health organisation are making efforts to increase awareness among people to reduce obesity. Various health care practices and prevention methods are applied to prevent obesity in old age people. The prevalence of obesity in UK is rapidly increasing in older group of peoples. In past decade, the population of older adults who are suffering from obesity has doubled. In spite of increase obesity among older people, it is important to continue improve health condition through obesity wile medical professional raise the awareness of challenges related obesity in older people. so, as recommendations for intervention to identify obesity will be provided. It also targeted the group of older people between age of 50 to 70 years.

    The older adult population is expanding, living longer with various chronic condition. It can be understanding for managing and controlling the health of older people over time. obesity is the most common public health problem that has become epidemic across the world. It also emerging to show that overweight and obesity, which are major cases of morbidities. It is mainly including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other type of health problem.

    Obesity is based on the public health problem that has increased concern worldwide. As per World health organization, it has found that there will be 2.3 billion overweight older people and 600 million obese people in worldwide (Adams, 2019). Although, there are many developed nations such as Germany and UK. The health care related the costs are substantial where it will develop the public health approach for managing the population-based strategies. It helps for prevention of controlling excess weight gain. Furthermore, it will conduct the public health intervention programs that will provide guideline and awareness among peoples.

    Overview

    The population of older adult will almost double from 43.2 million in 2012 to 83.2 million in 2030 because of aging baby Boomers and also increasing the life expectancy. It must be reflecting the large representation of minorities among older adults. There are almost 92% older have suffering from chronic diseases and 78% have at least one or more diseases (Agha and Agha, 2017). It involves stroke diabetes and cancer. Although these types of condition directly affect on the older adults. The health care organization support and utilize the services to provide better facilities among older adults (Berke and et.al., 2017). While increasing the population size and large number of comorbidities among older people. it is based on the unrealistic situation that will address the requirement of health condition of individual. Thus, it will require to implement population strategy that plays important role for identifying health-based result or outcome.

    The prevalence of obesity in UK is rapidly increasing in older group of peoples. In past decade, the population of older adults who are suffering from obesity that has doubled. In despite of increase obesity among older people, it is important to continue improve health condition through obesity wile medical professional raise the awareness of challenges related obesity in older people. so, as recommendations for intervention to identify obesity will be provided. It also targeted the group of older people between age of 50 to 70 years (Pearce and et.al., 2019). It should be considered the general prevention facilities and safe weigh loss strategies that help for maintaining or controlling overall critical condition of obesity. The participation of medical professional, family members within programs or events, which mainly support to reduce body fat or weight.

    Aim

    The main aim behind this project implementation is Prevention of obesity of older people in healthcare centres and homecare. Research says that obesity is one of the most common condition which is faced by older people in healthcare centres and home cares. Due to obesity many times older people face lots of difficulties at later stages of life. It is important to prevent obesity in older people.

    Objectives

    Main objectives behind project implementation are as follows:

    • To identify causes of Obesity in Older Adults
    • To analyse consequences of Obesity in Older people
    • To justify main causes behind prevention of Obesity in older people.
    • To maintain proper governance, supervision and communication of the project management.

    Justification

    The main reason because of which this project has been chosen is that, this study will help in understanding obesity of older people in healthcare centres and homecare. This study will lay emphasis on main causes of obesity, prevalence of obesity in older people, Consequences of Obesity in Older Adults. This project will help in monitoring obesity of older people in healthcare centres and homecare and will also help in increasing future scope of expansion or future research that can be carried forward in this area.

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    Prevalence of Obesity among Older Adults

    Nowadays, there are 7% population over age of 65 years, it projected to increase 13% by 2030. The substantial increases among older people suggest that obesity become major problem in future. In 2000, The prevalence of obesity in people 60 to 70 years of age had increases to 23.9%. On the other hand, the above age of 70 years to 15% representing increases of 35% respectively (Frasca and McElhaney, 2019). Moreover, Ageing population has increased, so as also double rate of obesity among older people, which often accompany aging and increase among society.

    An individual has considered to have a major disability if they have faced so many difficulties in dressing, eating and bathing. The obesity is likely to severe disable health condition among older adults. It has been rapidly increased in the global environment. The Medical professionals are providing the facilities of illness and identifying the symptoms related to obesity among older people. In US, it has accounted that 53% of total medical expenditure in 1998 and half of expenses financed by another Medicare. It is growing the number of older people, which are residing in health & social care facilities and also line with current trends. Many researchers have examined the prevalence of obesity in terms of NHS facilities and it directly impact on the healthcare utilisation. In between 2001 to 2010, It is moderate the prevalence of obesity in NHS that will increase from 14% to 23% (Leigh, Byles and Jagger, 2016). Moreover, the large number of population group will face problem due to the obesity.

    As current time, it has found the obesity prevalence rate that mainly identify the specific categories in which prevalence is becoming higher. It can be recognised the categories on the behalf of prevention program. Its primary aim is to identify the risk related weight gain. In the western societies, Obesity is one of most common among those with low education (Marcus-Varwijk and et.al., 2020). In order to increase the body mass level because peoples are not aware about the effects on human body. As per survey, it can be analysed the data from 43,000 men and women faced the problem of obesity. It can be measured in between 1989 to 1996. In several countries, the prevalence of obesity was assessing in the form of educational categories, sex, age.

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    Causes of Obesity in Older Adults

    The important determinant of body-fat mass is creating a relationship between expenditure as well as energy intake. The obesity has been occurred when people consumer more calories than he/she burns. It is the most important to maintain calories that sustain life and have energy. It will require for maintaining overall weight and balance amount of energy in the form of food (Grima, Seychell and Bezzina, 2017). Weight gain happens when they will balance more calories than burn. Therefore, it is likely to reduce the expenditure of energy particular in the age group of people between 50 to 60 years. It also contributes to increase fat in the body according to age because it will be changed the hormonal condition that happens during the aging (McTigue, Hess and Ziouras, 2016). Sometimes, it may cause the accumulation of fat. Aging is directly associated with reduce hormones secretions and also minimize responsiveness of thyroid. In this way, it can easily decline serum testosterone. There are different factors such as social, environmental that will contribute to the obesity.

    Genetic Factors

    As per observation, it often made by medical professional where obesity tend to increase in families. It may lead us to believe that obesity related to the genes and inherited with family members. After conducting research, it has been demonstrated that specific role of biological inheritance in context of fat variations (Morowati, sharifabad and et.al., 2019). The visceral fat always influenced by genotype than other type of fat. It also appeared that there is genotype overfeeding interaction components present in the body so that it directly affects on the individual body fat.

    Recently, many researchers are used the structural equation modelling technique to find out the relation between genetic loci which directly effects on adiposity and also impact on the growth of muscles. As per studies, it provides the substantial contribution towards the gene expression and how it will be used to expand their knowledge towards obesity.

    Environmental and Sociological Factors

    The surrounding environment is also play important role in which influence access to healthy food and safe areas (Harper and Snowden, 2017). It can be measured with the physical activity, life style, behavior that influenced by environment. In most of cases, an effective environment can help to prevent through obesity, while eating healthy food items and getting exercise in many times. For Example- it may include the trend towards eating habits rather than preparing food item in the home. At workplace, there are various type of high-calories, high-fat food item available. In this way, it directly affects on the overall health condition of older adults (Su and et.al., 2019). The availability of food remains the important factor that associated with obesity and also relates to the difference in prevalence across geographical locations. In additional, Environments experiencing disorder and high rate of crime also related to the obesity, which may appear that frequently minimize low social status. In this way, it can easily measure the inequality and social status (Abu Samah, Shamsudin and Zuhaily, 2017). It should require to knowledge about the complex relation and integration among human health.

    Apart from that socioeconomic status is a composite measured through educational attainment, income and other occupational status (Pahor, 2019). In context of health, there is low socioeconomic in childhood that associated with adult’s development. In order to increase chances of obesity. In adults’ women, Obesity prevalence increases while decreasing the educational level as well as income generations. The high level of socioeconomic is integrated with the lifestyle behaviors that help for treatment or prevention of obesity (Kivimäki and Steptoe, 2018). Furthermore, the exploration of socioeconomic that will affect different resources and identify the ability of people health behavior.

    Other Causes of Obesity

    The illness and critical conditions that are associated with obesity and weight gain. It may include ovary syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome and depression. The older people who were obese and gain more weight because they are suffering from depression, hopelessness, sadness and worthlessness. In this way, it directly affects on the human health while gaining more weight and fat. On the other hand, lack of sleep is also another type of issue that contribute towards obesity.

    Consequences of Obesity in Older Adults

    According to the view of Ng, Santosa and Kowal, (2017) Health consequences of Obesity in older individuals are quite adverse and can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, health diseases, strokes, high blood pressure and many more. Some of the problems can be life threatening whereas some of them can be normal. It is important to control diabetes in older adults as some of the con sequences of this obesity can be nonfatal or life threatening. Out of which some of them can be cured whereas some of them would be non-curable. Some of the most common conditions or consequences associated with Obesity in older adults are as follows:

    Respiratory problems: When an individual is suffering from obesity, their lungs size decreases. Due to this they face difficulty in breathing as weight on chest walls increases and person might face difficulty in lifting chest walls. In older people lungs structure and functions chances with growing age (Wollert, Kempf and Wallentin, 2017). As a result of these changes Obese older patients have reduced respiratory efficiency. If in older age obesity is not controlled then it can lead to respiratory problem which can further lead to other health issues such as cardiovascular diseases (Zhang, Saito and Crimmins, 2019).

    Arthritis and osteoarthritis: Another one of the main consequences of Obesity in older people is Arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis is one of the main and leading cause of disability in older people. Most of the time older adults face knee osteoarthritis problem because of high BMI (result of being overweight). Mostly at older age joints are much weak and cannot take much load. Obesity increases load at joints which can result in disability and in older age it is difficult for body to endure the load. Older people who suffer from Arthritis and osteoarthritis are more vulnerable to pain-stress-depression which can further affect their overall quality of life.

    Skin Conditions: According to a research, Ghosh, Khan and Thomas, (2019) says that most of the obese people suffer from skin issues such as rashes, redness, itching, skin breakdown and many more Older Obese people face more skim problems because with age their skin becomes fragile, thickness decreases because of which they face various kinds of skin issues or conditions. Many times due to over weight body weight on bladder increases which results in urine leakage while sneezing or coughing because of which chances of rashes on that particular area also increases.

    Cardiovascular diseases: it is one of the main and leading reason of increasing number of death rate among older people. Most of the cardiovascular diseases in older age occur because of obesity. Obesity leads to many other health issues that can lead to heart diseases such as: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and many more (El Ghoch, Calugi and Grave, 2018). Older obese people face various kinds of challenges in controlling such health issues and many times because of these issues it becomes quite difficult to address or understand type of cardiovascular disease faced by older obese adults (Javaheri and Redline, 2017).

    Diabetes: Diabetes is commonly found in older individuals. More than 75 percent of older adults suffer from diabetes. Number of genetic and environmental factors contribute in obesity that leads to occurrence of diabetes in older individuals. Overweight, or weight gain can increase risk of diabetes in older people by 50 percent. Increasing weight can reduce physical activity within older adults because of which prevalence of diabetes among older adults increases. According to a research it was found that as weight in older individuals increases, risk of diabetes also increases which further leads to increase in cardiovascular diseases.

    Cancer: Obesity is directly linked to increased chances of various kinds of cancer. Breast cancer in older women is mostly found in overweight women (Chooramani, Prasad and Akbar, 2018). Older adults who are obese are more likely to develop rectum cancer, colon cancer, oesophageal and kidney cancer.

    Gallbladder disease: One of the main reasons because of which gallstones occur is Obesity. This is mainly because obesity reduces bile salt in bile which results in increased cholesterol. Obesity decreases chances of gallbladder emptying which results in various kinds of diseases.

    Prevention or interventions to address Obesity in Older Adults

    Care providers can focus on reducing obesity in older people by promoting healthier life style. One of the main ways through which obesity can be reduced and healthier lifestyle can be adopted by older people is modification in diet, exercise and using community support. Healthcare centres or homecare can focus on building various strategies that can be used to promote healthy lifestyle and help older obese individuals to overcome all kinds of barriers or challenges related to bringing change in physical activity and diet ( Yang, Wang and Sheridan, 2018). These two are one of the best prevention methods that can reduce obesity in older adults.

    First by developing a self-management program for obese older adults in healthcare centres or home care. This self-management programs can help obese older individuals to reduce their weight, increase their quality of life. This will also help them in reducing changes of health diseases, diabetes, arthritis, respiratory problems and many more. With the help of these programs’ healthcare centres or home care individuals can focus on developing a healthy lifestyle in older people suffering from obesity so that they can lose weight and reduce chances of any kind of diseases or complications that occur from obesity. This will also help in increasing or generating awareness among older adults related to obesity and its consequences.

    A national blueprint can also be developed for healthcare centres or home care so that they can help older adults with their weight and increase physical activity within them (Bakker and et.al., 2018). Building a national blueprint can help in addressing physical activity barriers among older adults. Other than this there are many other strategies that can help in reducing obesity in older individuals as there are various kinds of challenges that are associated with weight loss in elder people. Weight loss programs or strategies developed by healthcare centres should Address all kinds of challenges such as isolation, loneliness and many more.

    PROJECT OUTLINE

    Project outline helps in identifying ways in which project will be completed and planned. In order to successfully implement this project, it is important to address various kinds of challenges using proper project management methodologies (Schwedes, Riedel and Dziekan, 2017). Complete project has been planned and implemented across three main project constraints that are time, cost and overall quality of the project. Project will not only justify causes and consequences of obesity in older people but will also focus on prevention of obesity of older adults in healthcare centres and home care. This project will also focus on importance of this topic i.e. how much importance prevention of obesity of older people is important to be focused on. First of all literature review of the project will be done which will focus on prevalence of obesity of older individual, causes of obesity, consequences of obesity and interventions to address or reduce obesity in older individuals. Research done to complete this project clearly shows importance of this topic and how much crucial it is to be focused on. In order to successfully complete this project, it is important to properly plan project and focus on time management so that outlined requirements of a project can be completed. Main deliverables or objectives of the project have also been outlined at the starting of the project in order to achieve desired aim. Other than this some assumptions have also been made in order to complete the project within estimated budget and timeline.

    Plan, do, act and study

    PDSA is a short cycle that helps in testing any kind of change by developing a plan to test the change, carrying out the test (do), learning and observing from the consequences (study) and determining modifications that are required to be made (act) (Urbański, Haque and Oino, 2019). It is a kind of a tool which is used for project planning for bringing continuous improvement which further helps in achieving desired or expected outcome. Planning is one of the most important things to be considered according to different kinds of project management theories. PDSA will help in studying causes and consequences of obesity of older individuals in healthcare centres or home care. Based on the observations modifications or interventions that are required to prevent obesity in older adults will be identified. Based on PDSA planning, execution of this planning will be done in such a manner that project can be completed within specified time period and overall budget of the project.

    Project Estimation technique

    It is important to choose proper and appropriate project estimation technique in order to estimate overall budget of the project. Project estimation techniques can be used for estimating overall budget, time required for the project and benchmarking for the project (von Rohr, Witschel and Martin, 2018). In order to define overall budget of the project top down estimation technique has been used. With the help of this technique overall budget of the project was estimated using information related to previous similar projects. Using this estimation technique overall budget of the project that was estimated is £100. Risk analysis of the overall project was also done using sale project estimation technique. Some of the most commonly unexpected risk that can occur within the project that can work as a barrier in completion of the project and can disturb budget and time of the project are: loss of leadership control, communication gap, mis-management, rise in budget and many more. Using this technique way in which overall project will be carried out is identified and expected judgement is taken.

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    PROJECT TIMELINE

    Another important aspect of a project is project timeline (Forgie and Salzman, 2017). Project timeline is a chronological order of events which is linked with activities, dates. Project timeline helps in identifying activities that are already completed, activities that are in progress and activities that are required to be completed. In short overall project timeline helps in explaining overall progress of the project and check whether the project is within the defined schedule or not. There are different techniques and tools available that can be used for representation of overall progress of the project. One of the most common technique used for project timeline representation is Gantt Chart (Basting, Towey and Rose, eds., 2016). With the help of Gantt chart all project activities or task, with their set milestones can be defied in a better manner. It also helps in explaining inter dependencies of task or activities. All the major task or activities of the project can be further divided into sub task as per the requirement of the project. It is one of the most commonly used technique that can be used for completion of any project within defined time and budget of the project. If any task or activity is delayed then it can be easily identified or tracked with the help of this Gantt chart (Wilburn, Vanderpool and Knight, 2016). Proper project management tool helps in also helps in marking which task or activity has been achieved, which is required to achieved, what task has been achieved within defined time period and which activity or task has not been achieved. Gantt Chart also helps in defining or identifying critical path or best path to complete the project in minimum number of days.

    Figure 1 Timeline of the project

    In the above project timeline and Gantt chart all the main activities of the project have been defined and showcased in a proper and appropriate manner for proper project progression results. In the above timeline and Gantt Chart time period required to complete overall project and each activity has also been defined. From the above Gantt Chart best path to complete the project can also be defined. From the above timeline and Gantt Chart and timeline it can be said that the overall project will be completed in 9 working days. This project has been divided into 6 main activities and duration of all the activities has also been defined that has been mapped properly on the Gantt Chart. Main activities of this project are: defining aim and objective of the project, defining overall project scope, project planning and risk assessment, project development, project closure and last is project evaluation.

    PROJECT METHODOLOGY

    There are various kinds of approaches that can be used for carrying out development of a project in a proper and effective manner is known as project management methodology (Ghiglione, Fabris, and Pagliarino, 2019). Every project manager is required to select appropriate kind of project methodology which is best suitable for a project. These methodologies act as guidelines and helps in guiding throughout the project and take appropriate steps to complete the project. There are various kinds of project methodologies that can be used with a project to complete it in an appropriate manner. Some of the most commonly used methodologies are: agile, waterfall, Scrum, rapid application development, PRINCE2, Six Sigma, Kanban, Lean and many more. For this project Agile methodology can be used as this methodology will help in fulfilling all the requirements of the project in a proper and appropriate manner. This methodology is best suited for this project as this project is required to be completed in a short duration of time and changes required for this project as also required to be implemented in a short duration of time period (Jafarzadeh, Akbari, and Abedin, 2018). So, it can also be said that when timeline to complete the project successfully is quite short and dynamic. Agile method also helps in continuous changes or implementation of the project. With the help of this method all the demands and requirements of the project can be completed in a timely manner. In this project with the help of Agile project management methodology required changes can be brought ort implemented successfully, task completion can be done successfully in a timely manner and with-it proper documentation of the project can also be done in a timely and required manner. Another reason because of which this method is best suited for this project is that this project requires flexibility and have high level of uncertainty and complexity. However, there are other methodologies that could have been used for this project is Scrum as this methodology is used when there are a smaller number of team members to complete the project. But implementation or usage of Scrum methodology is quite costly as compared to agile methodology.

    RISK MANAGEMENT

    Risk management and analysis is another important factor to be focused on in order to complete each and every project in a timely manner successfully. Analysis and management of risk increases success chances of a project (Almeida, Hankins and Williams, 2017). There are various kinds of risk that can affect progress and success of ap project some of the risk are expected and some of them are unexpected risk and some of them are expected that might occur at any time of the project. It is important to analyse both external and internal kind of risk at the initiation of the project so that it does not affect a project drastically and can be handled appropriately. There are always X amount of uncertainties in a project that can occur at any time within the project duration. Different kinds of risk are identified in different manner using different kinds of techniques. Using top down approach risk analysis can be done at the starting of the project learning from past experiences (Rampini, Viswanathan and Vuillemey, 2019). Occurrence of any kind of risk can affect a project in three different categories that are: time, scope and cost of the project. All the three categories can get disturbed because of any kind of expected, unexpected, internal or external risk. In order to identify unexpected or expected risk based on past experience, risk registers can be used. In order to identify internal risk SWOT analysis of internal factors can be done and in order to identify external risk PESTLE analysis of external factors can be done. Risk register will help in identifying risk that had occurred in past and their likelihood of occurrence and damage it can create. PESTLE analysis will help in identifying all the external factors that can affect overall development of a project. Identification, analysis and management of these external risk can help in creating more dynamic project. SWOT analysis will help in doing internal risk analysis and identify risk can be created internally and can affect the overall project. With the help of these three methods al the three constraints can be maintained that are scope, time and budget of the project (Tupa, Simota and Steiner, 2017). All the three types of risk analysis or management methods are applied to the project at the time of planning so that if any kind of changes of implementation of method is required to be brought then it can be done in a proper manner so that overall quality of the project is not degraded and project can be completed in a defined time and cost.

    Risk Management Process

    Risk management process is a kind of method that can be used to reduce uncertainties through planning, organizing, analysing and controlling all kinds of risk. Risk management process consist of 6 main stages:

    First stage is risk recognition. At this stage both internal and external risk are identified with the help of proper and appropriate methods such as SWOT, PESTLE and many more. Applicability of these methods can help in understanding type of risk and ways in which it can affect time, cost and scope of the project. Some of the most common type of risk that can occur within a project are: loss of leadership control, communication gap, mis-management, rise in budget, data loss and many more.

    Second stage is assessment of identified risk. At this stage probability and priority of the risk is assessed so that the damage it will cause to the project and contracts that would be affected with the type of risk can also be identified and assessed (Cole, Giné and Vickery, 2017).

    Based on the assessment of risk, at third stage strategic plan for the risk are made in order to handle the risk. These strategies help in addressing all kind of identified risk within the project development as per their priority and likelihood. Within strategies required actions that can resolve type of risk is applied. Most commonly used strategies to address or resolve any kind of risk are risk mitigation, risk transfer, risk acceptance, and many more.

    Based on strategies risk register is made that act as a guideline within the project for risk management. Risk register is one of the best ways through which risk occurred can be managed within the project.

    Last stage is risk review process in which all kinds of risk that have been identified are reviewed in order to evaluate that whether that particular risk has been resolved or not.

    Risk

    Category

    Impact

    Likelihood

    Activities

    Mis-management

    Internal

    Medium

    Low

    No action planned

    Data loss

    Internal

    High

    Medium

    Continuous data back up

    Leadership control loss

    Internal

    Medium

    Low

    Risk transfer

    Increase in budget

    Internal/ External

    Medium

    High

    Risk mitigation

    SUCCESS FACTOR

    There are various kinds of factors that can be used to analyse whether the project has been successfully completed or not. Evaluation of success factors helps in analysing whether the project has achieved all the desired outcomes or not (Quang, Do Huu and Pham, 2017). Defining these success factors in every project is important as evaluation of project success or accomplishment of main desired objectives is done on the basis of these factors. In order to evaluate success of this project “prevention of obesity of older adults in healthcare centres and home care”. First and the foremost success factor that can help in defining success of this project is accomplishment of the overall project within the defined budget and timeline of the project. If the project is completed in defined time period and budget then it can be treated as critical success factor. Another success factor is inclusion of all the required information such as causes, prevalence and interventions of obesity of older people in healthcare centres or home cares. If the project helps in explaining prevention of obesity of older people in healthcare centres then it can be treated as a critical success factor and achievement of all the defined factors can help in evaluation of overall success of the project.

    LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES

    In order to initiate and successful completion of project there are some leadership theories that is applied. Here, a leader plays an effective role in executing change and carrying out project. Also, he is responsible for assigning roles and providing a direction for nurses and staff on how to execute change. Moreover, effective decisions are taken in order to provide effective health care practices. In addition, leadership is highly related with health care. It is because the concepts and theories are applied in this. A study conduct state that in many care homes old age people are suffering from obesity. This is because of ineffective care practices and services that are provided to them.

    Basically, health care leadership theories are different (Theories of health care leadership, 2016). So, basically, three broad theories can be applied in health care. The trait, situational and relational are some concepts that is executed in project. The trait theory state that leaders are born with certain characteristics which allow them to lead and guide others. Here, leadership traits include intelligence and action oriented, eagerness of initiate and take responsibility, completing task, etc. in addition there are other traits as well such as motivate people, self confidence and many more. So, it enables person to become a leader. In some individual the traits might differ, However, those who do not possess these traits are able to become a leader. In this project leader can guide home care staff to implement certain practices that help in preventing obesity in old age people. For this a plan health care plan can be developed and applied. Therefore, they train and educate social worker to make improvements on their own.

    Kotter and Lewin change management theory enable in creating change. It consists of several steps which are useful in implementing change. In Lewin there are 3 steps which are unfreeze, transition and refreeze. However, Kotter 8 step model is useful in implementing change. This also enable in leading people and executing change. Thus, it is easy to bring change and achieve goals.

    However, contingency or situational theory is applied on particular situation. In this leader use combination of behaviour and change their styles that relate to specific situation. Also, sometimes, theory applied is based on personality, organisation culture, etc. As per the situational leadership leaders can adjust their behavior as well as skills level to the staff members able to matches the four leadership style as per the level of development regarding the staff members. Situational leaders also support employees while motivating them as they resist change. So, in this they are encouraged by leader by improving their morale. Such as if the firm goes through the failures because of the low motivation and employee performance issues than approaches of the managers and leaders rely on the approach that assist to boost the morale of the employees. In order to encourage the staff members they can make the public and personal communication sessions and this is how they can handle the challenges that are related to the staff members. Here, leader can work within health care center and analyze behavior of old age people. Thus, they can develop a plan to prevent obesity. With help of it, prevention strategies can be formulated and executed.

    Furthermore, in relational theory the leader communicates and interact with followers to built strong and effective relations. Through this, it becomes easy to execute change and work with them. Alongside, leader make them aware about change that has to be executed. In this there are basically 5 elements that are ethics, purpose, empower, etc. hence, leader act as role model to employees. Here, leader can communicate and develop strong relation with old age people as well as care worker. Thus, by supporting them they can train and educate them to improve eating habits or implement some prevention in practical way. therefore, it will act as guidance to care worker that how obesity can be prevented. moreover, there are other things as well which is to be considered.

    These are the leaders who taps with followers. They focus to raise the significance regarding particular outcomes and high order needs within new ways where the new outcomes might be accomplished. This style focuses on the motivation, team building, collaboration with staff members at various level of a firm to achieve change. Leaders regarding this approach focuses on the goals so that they are able to push their co workers at the higher level as well as also provides the opportunity regarding professional and personal growth regarding each staff member. By applying transformation leadership style in it leader inspire and encourage care worker to attain specific outcomes by fulfilling needs of patients. So, this impact in positive way on team or group. Here, leader motivate to implement change which enable in growth of health care home. Basically, this style is applied when change is created or execute. The staff has to work independently with help of new solutions or change executed. Furthermore, problems are solved through ethics, values, standards, etc. By open communication with staff leader will be able to direct them on how to make effective decision on their own. The leader act as proper mentor and coach and allow them to take ownership of their own tasks.

    The above leadership theories are applicable in health care projects. It gives insight on leading a project where leader play significant role in it. The main reason behind this theory is to guide staff and nurse to take or apply efficient prevention methods or measures to prevent obesity in old age people.

    Critical success factor

    In every project there are some critical success factor which help in analysing that whether project is successfully implemented or not. Usually, in health care projects these success factor plays vital role in it. thus, in this project the main success factor is prevention strategies and practices are to be provided to old age people within health care homes. Besides that, a proper diet plan must be followed in care home to improve health and diet of old age. This will allow in enhancing their physical health and changing mind set, Moreover, it will result in bringing changes in their lifestyle and daily routine. Along with it, another critical success factor is changing behaviour of old age people and shifting it towards healthy lifestyle. It will help in eating healthy foods. However, the leader must develop strong and efficient relation with old age people. furthermore, by generating awareness among different types of disease due to old age people obesity is prevented. The symptoms and effects of obesity on mental and physical health is stated to them. therefore, this will bring change in their lifestyle.

    RECOMMENDATION

    In order to execute project and prevent obesity within old age people within health care home there are certain recommendations that can be followed. The care home should form some policies and framework regarding proper diet, routine, etc. of old age people. Besides that, there must be proper governance and strict rules and regulations to ensure that project is executed and completed on time. For that different strategies can be developed and implemented to manage project on time. Alongside, risk assessment should be conducted which will help in identifying risk and taking effective measures. Thus, it will be easy to minimise risk when it occurs during project implementation. Furthermore, for managing cost and time proper monitoring can be done so that in specified budget project is completed.

    Moreover, the local authority and health centres should make integrate and communicate with each other to suggest ways and apply framework in it. Other than this, above leadership approach such as Kotter ad lewin style followed as well to initiate this project. the leader can come up with new ideas and concepts to implement other change as well within this. New strategies and prevention methods can be applied in future. The leader can discuss with care homes and other NGO’s to frame policy or strategies that can be implemented in reducing obesity. In this way systematic approach can be followed to prevent obesity and improve lifestyle of old age people.

    CONCLUSION

    From the above project it has been concluded that project is completed and defined in a proper manner that can help in identifying prevention of obesity of older people in healthcare centres and home care. This project has successfully outlined and fulfilled all the main objectives and requirements of the project. From the literature review it has been analysed that there are there are various causes because of which obesity in older adults can increase. It has also been analysed that obesity in older individuals is increasing continuously because of which a greater number of older people are entering into category of obese people. It is important to control or prevent older people from health issue like obesity because it has various kinds of health consequences some of them are curable but some of them are incurable and are life threatening. Due to increasing age there are various kinds of chances that older people’s body goes through and obesity in this age worsen these chances whose consequences are quite severe. It has been analysed that there are various kinds of prevention methods or ways that can help healthcare centres or home care to reduce obesity in older people. Literature review has helped in analysing prevalence, causes, consequences and interventions of obesity in older people in a proper manner. The approach selected by the project manager for the project was quite appropriate that helped the project manager in completing the project in a timely and successful manner. This approach also helped in identifying all kinds of risk associated with the project. Other than this it has also been analysed that the agile methodology chosen for the project also played a vital role in completion of the project in an appropriate manner. Adaptation of proper approach and methodology not only helped in analysing different kinds of risk associated with the project whose management helped in completing the project within defined scope, time and budget.

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