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Psychology is scientific study of behaviour and mental processes. It mainly concerned with the observations and explanations of human behaviour in single individuals or in groups. Psychology as a science deals with the motives, feelings, emotions and thoughts action of men and women. It involves with the discipline embraces all the aspects of human experience from the functions of the brain to the actions along with the child development to care for the aged. A professional researcher in this field is known as psychologist that can be classified as a social, cognitive scientist and behavioural. Psychologists mainly explores about the behavioural and mental processes that mainly involves brain functioning, intelligence, emotions, attention and personality. This report mainly covers about the comparison between different theories of life span development along with the psychological theories that is relevant to life stages. This reports also covers about the social and biological factors that directly and indirectly influence the human behaviour along with significance of social roles for health and social care setting. It also covers about the application of psychological theories and understanding of various mental disorders.
The life span development mainly includes all the changes that occurs from birth and covers throughout the life span of an individual. The life span development includes various stages of life that includes infancy, childhood, adolescences, middle age and older age. There several types of theories of life span development that covers about physical, psychological as well as social development of a person. Every theory of life span development has different criteria of developing an individual . Some of the theories of life span development are discussed in detail below:
Trust vs Mistrust –
This is first stage of Erik Erikson's theory that mainly emphasis about the infant's basic needs that is being met by the parents. In this stage infant directly depends upon their parents for comfort and sustenance. In order to satisfy basic needs, infant depends on their parents as they feel save and secure with parents.
Autonomy vs Shame and doubt:
In this stage of Erik Erikson's theory, children are guided and taught about adopting few learning that mainly includes feeding, changing clothes etc. In this stage children could start feeling ashamed and doubt their own capabilities.
Initiative vs Guilt:
This stage of Erik Erikson's theory includes preschool age child those age is between 3-5 years. Children learn about new concepts and they attain to accomplish their goals and tasks by their own sense.
Industry vs Inferiority:
This stage of Erik Erikson's theory includes school age child those age is between 5-11 years. They learn to follow the rules that is imposed by schools and home. In this stage, child start believing that they are inferior to others.
Identity vs Role confusion:
It includes adolescence those age is between 11-18 years. In this they acquire a sense of identity and they become confused about one roles in life. Child develop sexual identity along this they experience transition from childhood to adulthood.
Intimacy vs Isolation:
This stage includes young adulthood whose age is between 18-40 years. In this stage an individual develops a strong relationship and joint identity with a partner. They become isolated and usually develops a fear of rejection.
Generativity vs Stagnation:
This stage includes middle adulthood whose age is between 40-65 years. They make use of time and are having a concern with helping others. They become self centred and stagnant.
Integrity vs Despair:
This stage involves with late adulthood whose age lies between 60- and up. They understand and accept the meaning of temporary life.
Psychosexual Stages by Freud
It mainly occurs during the first 18 months of life when the infant's pleasure centres on the mouth. Some activities like chewing, sucking and biting act as the actions that reduces tension of infant.
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Anal stage: In this stage child's greatest pleasure mainly involves as the anus or the eliminative functions that is associated with it. In the views of Freud, the exercise of anal muscles reduces the tension.
: It generally occurs between the ages of 3-6. In this stage, pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that self stimulation is enjoyable.
It occurs at approximately between 6 years of age until puberty. Under this stage, the child develops social and intellectual skills and represses all the interest in the sexuality.
This is the last stage of psychosexual development that usually occurs from puberty onwards. Sexual reawakening starts in this stage and the sources of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family.
Erik Erikson (Psychosocial Theory Of Development)
Sigmund Freud (Psychosexual Theory Of Development)
· This is a psychosocial theory and it mainly involves several stages in which importance of needs fulfilment and their social development is discussed.
· It includes the criteria of trust versus mistrust and relationship goes beyond feeding.
· This is psychosexual theory psychosexual theory of development in which various stage relevant to infant attempts in order attain needs satisfaction is discussed.
· It can be considered as oral stage and includes mother- child symbolic relationship of care.
There are several psychological concepts and theories that is relevant and directly associated with the different life stages of human development. There are many different types of theories that is introduced by great thinkers. One of them is cognitive theory which was given by Piaget.
The cognitive theory is directly related with the development in various stages that includes infancy, early childhood and later childhood along with the developing senses accordingly to age category that is from infancy to 12 years. The several steps involves in the cognitive development stages are described below:
The Sensorimotor stage: In this stage, the child starts to develop reflexes, habits, hand-eye coordination along with experimentation and creativity. Behaviours of children are limited to simple motor responses and sensory stimuli.
The Pre operational stage: In this stage, the child begins to develop language skills, imagination along with the ability to represent objects with words and images. Under this stage, children learn through imitation and they begin to use reasoning.
Concrete operational stage: During this stage, the child begins to develop the ability to sort the objects , understand conservations and classify the objects.
Formal operational stage: Under this stage, child with the age of 11-15 year are undertaken. The child begins to develop the ability to hypothesized, test and re-evaluate hypotheses. Children begin thinking in a formal systematic way.
The human behaviour is directly and indirectly affected by the several types of social and biological factors that creates impact on the personality of an individual. It involves the ability of an individual in order to take and develop some perceptions, think as well as response to different situations in response to one's own thoughts or views. Human behaviour is depended upon various fundamental requirements that is control, connection and consistency that is analysed by observation. Along with this, there are many more factors that directly impact the behaviour of human which mainly includes genetics, mental disorders, abilities, gender, culture, attitude etc. Moreover, an individual also get affected by the influence of ancestors along with several aspects that mainly involves the way of working, thoughts and talking.
In context with the social factors such as race, culture, traditions, attribution and attitude also affect and regulate the overall behaviour of an individual. The social environment that includes relationship with the family members, friends, co-workers, supervisors along with the subordinates also affect the human behaviour. An individual behaviour is the need based, so for the effective performance and positive behaviour there should be proper motivation of the person that they usually gain from their surroundings. Race mainly refers particularly to a group of individuals that have similar physical abilities and culture mainly include the religion, traits and tradition that creates direct reflection in the behaviour of an individual. Perception generally referred as the defining to judge any person on the basis of self observation.
On the other hands there are several biological factors as well that are directly responsible for regulating the behaviour of an individual. The main biological factors that effect the human behaviour are gender, mental disorders and genetics. All this factors creates huge reflection on the human behaviour. In concerned with the gender of a person, they have very different likes and dislikes that directly influences their nature as well. It involves that behaviours due to their different features and priorities of life impacts on their way of behaving with other people. Genetics is another biological factors which mainly involves with heredity and inheritance of various traits and characteristics that are genetically transferred from their parents. This is due to transition of similar alleles so to which an individual behaves in similar way as their parents.
Moreover, there are various types mental disorders that also affect the behaviour of an individual as it somewhere affect the brain that leads to develop negative thinking. There are various psychological disorder that mainly includes anxiety disorders, depression, anorexia, phobias that directly creates negative impact on the behaviour of an individual. Due this mental disorder an individual behave in negative way, they started harming themselves, remain isolated and start harming others as well.
The overall social environment along with the society plays very crucial role in regulating and affecting the healthcare of infected individual. Society may create both types impacts on the mind sets of an individual that can be negative or positive. There are some of the infectious health issues and problems due to which society isolate those patients away. This behaviour from the social environment and society creates negative impact on the health of such people who are in need of health and social care. In the cases of mental disorders, when an individual faces any of mental disorders issues they need strong social support from society. The support from society will encourage and motivate such patients to overcome with such diseases. Due to lack of support of the society patients starts feeling demoralised and they loose hope for surviving for long time duration. In order to overcome with this metal disorders, psychologists provides therapies and counselling that help them to motive themselves internally to recover fast from medical conditions. Society plays crucial role in motivating and supporting this diseased people so that they remain motived that helps in healthcare settings.
Moreover, health and social setting mainly includes the significance of motivation that will power up an individual for gaining the desire outcomes of treatments. Social factors mainly includes income, education and access to health care services that directly impact the health and social setting as it facilitate set the guidelines along with code of practices.
Stress is defined as a stage of strain that effects both physically and psychologically. Stress is considered as conscious as well as unconscious psychological feeling and physical situation that comes as a result of mental positive or negative pressure. Some of the common external causes of stress includes major changes in the personal life, relationship difficulties, financial problems, lack of work-life balance, families issues. On the other side, some internal causes of stress are chronic worries, pessimism, negative self talk, unrealistic expectations, rigid thinking etc.
General Adaptation Syndrome theory states about the three phases that is totally based upon the hypothesis that the body has normal level of resistance to stress. The three stages of General Adaption Syndrome includes alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion. Some of the effective coping strategies for stress includes staying positive, communicate and shares thoughts with others, deal effectively with mistakes, making strong connection with others and by accepting nature of others.
Some of the symptoms of stress includes low energy, headache, upset stomach that mainly leads to diarrhea, constipation, muscles tense, frequent cold and infection. Behaviour symptoms of stress includes missed meals, sick leave, poor sleep etc. Some of the sources of stress includes environmental, organisational and personal factors. Environmental factors involves with economical uncertainty, political uncertainty and technological change. Personal factors involves family problems, personality and economic problems. The psychological nature of stress includes three important element of stressful stimuli that includes overload, conflict and uncontrollability.
Psychological theories related to behaviour disturbance helps an individual to overcome stress and depression. Attention Deficit Hyper Disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorder of childhood. It is most prevalent chronic health condition that directly affect the school-aged children along with most extensively studied mental disorder of childhood. Attention Deficit Hyper Disorder is characterized by inattention that also includes increase in distractibility along with difficulty in staining attention and poor impulse control. In this disorder an individual self inhibitory capacity decreases. Secondly, is Autism Spectrum disorder that varies widely along with its effect. It generally occurs in children and it includes mild impairments. Child suffering from Autism spectrum disorders faces various issues that includes communication issues both verbally and non verbally. They faces issues regarding to their thinking as well as behaviour flexibility. In order to diagnose Autism spectrum disorders it is important to monitor child's development in very concern that includes social, emotional and cognitive.
Autism Spectrum disorders treatment can be done by educational interventions and medical managements. Educational intervention includes applied behaviour analysis , speech therapy, Occupational therapy and physical therapy. Applied behaviour analysis works to systematically change the behaviour that is based on the principles of learning derived from behavioural psychology and also encourages the positive behaviour. Occupational therapy is used as treatment for sensory integration issues that is associated with Autism Spectrum disorders. Addictive behaviour is related to behaviour of an individual that includes both reinforcing and rewarding.
Mental health disorders is also known as psychiatric disorder and mental illness. It is behaviour pattern that directly causes impairment of an individual personal functioning. There are many mental disorders that have been described and can be diagnosed well by mental health professional. The main causes of mental disorders are not yet clear, still many theories are implemented in order to identify the main reason of causing mental disorders. Mental disorders have usually defined as combination of an individual feeling, thinking and behaving. Moreover, mental disorders is directly associated with the particular region and function of the human brain. Neurosis is also defined as class of mental disorders that directly involves with chronic distress.
There are different types of neuroses that includes obsessive compulsive disorders, impulse control disorder, anxiety disorder, hysteria and obsessive compulsive personality disorder. The main symptoms of neurosis includes anxiety, sadness, depression, anger, irritability, low sense and mental confusion. In concern with the biological view of mental disorder it identified that due to genetic disorders, mental disorders in transferred or inheritance to offspring. Psychosis is considered as abnormal condition of mind in which an individual faces problems of sleep , social withdrawal, performing daily activities smoothly and lack of motivation.
The psychological principles refers to those effective factors which plays an important role for regulation physical, mental and social health of an individual. It is required for psychologists to make plan of action for providing treatment to psychological patients by considering several elements which are mandatory to make them well being. However, it is essential for mental health care professionals to set standards of care by analysing roles of overall psychological principles such as stimulation, socialisation, identity and control. Initially, stimulation refers to state of an individual when they are more alert, creative and productive and they are stimulated by an environment which is interesting varying as well as changing. Secondly, socialisation include sense of social belonging which involve gossips, meetings and get together events with society in order to make identity by increasing belongingness, esteem and success. Thirdly, identity of an individual which is establish in effective manner by their occupation, intelligence and success in life among society. Moreover, principle of control which can be described as stable situation of an person to fulfil a fundamental need of sense of control in their life.
Behaviourism approach implies that a learner responds to environmental stimuli without an individual mental state of being a factor in the learner's behaviour. Psychodynamic approach helps in focusing on the unconscious thought processes, that manifest in an individual behaviour. Patient explores about unresolved issues and conflicts from the past that are believed to affect an individual in the present. The benefit of psychological theory to understand relationships in health care as it helps to analyse, diagnose and treat mental disorder in proper manner. It is significant that psychological principles are helpful to evaluate requirements in different psychological cases so that they should facilitate to conduct appropriate treatment procedures for welfare of patient. However, it is necessary to make an accurate plan of action to deal with mental patients as per their psychological disorder along with considering important symptoms. Moreover, it will provide support to understand about complexity of mental problem in terms of rendering more effective as well as efficient treatment to them.
During my time in health and social care sector, there were various concepts of psychology which are necessary for an individual working in the sector to develop a brief understanding of this area. It is imperative to enhance one's performance in health and social care settings.
While Eric Erikson's Psychological Theory clearly articulate the stages of social development of individuals along with fulfilment of needs, Sigmund Freud's Psychosexual Theory is appropriate in case where attempts of infants for fulfilment of their needs are discussed. My understanding of development further increased by reviewing Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory which identifies development of childhood of an individual.
To enhance the performance in health and social care, one must be briefly familiar with the social and biological barrier influencing human behaviour. While the intensity of the social barriers like culture, traditions, control and attitude consciously affect an individual, the biological factors like genetics, mental disorders as well as gender influence these behaviour subconsciously as well. In health and social care social roles act as an imperative measure to be considered by individuals working in this setting. For instance, isolation of patients suffering from mental or infectious disease facilitates negativity which shouldn't be the agenda of health and social care organisations. They must provide them support in order to ensure speedy recovery.
Lastly, psychological theories play an important role in health and social care according to me. They play a vital role in determining stress levels of individuals, behaviour disturbance, understanding of mental health disorders and so forth. These theories must be understood and applied by individuals to enhance the service qualities given in health and social care.
From the above report, it is summarise that Psychology can be described as part of science which deal with mental health and activities in terms of their stability and wellness. It includes psychological theories of development including Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development which contains several stages like Trust vs Mistrust, Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs Guilt, Industry vs Inferiority, Identity vs Role Confusion, Intimacy vs Isolation, Generativity vs Stagnation and Ego Integrity vs Despair.
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