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    Working with Groups and Individuals

    Introduction to Working with Groups and Individuals

    Group are very important for achieving the targets and desired goals easily. Every individual possess different set of skills which others may not possess. When a group is formed then individuals with different set of skills and knowledge work together to achieve common goals. Present report would help in identifying different ways through which group can be formed. Further, it covers the critical analysis of appropriate communication skills, ethical and power issues which are involved in anti-oppressive group work. Lastly, it also includes personal and professional skills which are required for engaging activities within group.


    There are many theories which are involved in group working. These theories are very helpful in bringing together effective individuals who would be able to work effectively in achieving the desired goals and objectives.

    Following are the three theories on group working

    Tuckman's theory

    This theory was given by Bruce Tuckman in the year 1965. It theory is the path through which group could be formed and can further work effectively. There are five stages involved which are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.


    This is the first stage, in this the team members will be full of positivity and anxiousness as they do not know fully about their other members in the team. In this stage, leader of the team plays vital role in clarifying team member’s roles and responsibilities. This stage goes for a bit longer, as members make efforts to know other member in the group.


    It is a stage in which conflicts arises. Member in the group try to work in their own working style. Further, they also challenge their authority as they are clear what their roles are. There may be members who would start asking questions regarding the worth of goals which has to be achieved. Member of the team who take on the tasks alone may face stress.


    In this stage, member of the group start to understand the differences and take help form each other. Members get to have more interactions and get to know the other members more closely. They start to trust their authority and work for the betterment and focused on achieving the goals and objectives for which they have formed the group.


    According to this stage, the team members work hard to achieve the goals. By this stage, leader of the team gets to know about skills and capabilities of their team members and accordingly they delegate work. They are focused and concerned with enhancing their member’s capabilities.

    In accordance with the case, the main aim of forming this group was to understand Richard so that better care could be provided. When team member get to know Richard more closely, then would able to provide proper care individually. At that point of time there would be no need of forming group in case of Richard.

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    Punctuated equilibrium model

    This model was given by Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge in the year 1972. According to this model, groups are formed for a short period of time. More specifically these types of groups are formed in order to achieve specific goals. In this model following are the stages involved in formation of groups:

    First meeting

    In this stage, all the employees should be called upon a meeting in which the formation of group should be conveyed. Among those employees, capable and energetic employees should be selected in forming group.


    The entire member should be conveyed regarding the goals and objectives which have to be achieved. All the responsibilities which have to be played should be conveyed properly to the member of the team. Team leader should be selected who would help the members to perform their roles.


    Time should be decided in which they would achieve the desired goals.


    In this stage, member would get to know the skills which are required for the betterment and achievement of the goals. In addition to this, they would also get to know whether they would be capable enough to achieve the goals.

    In accordance with the case, the main aim of formation of group is to understand Richard and provide him with proper care. In this context, it is very important to know the member would be capable enough to achieve the goal. Selected employees should perform their role properly and focus on achieving the desired goal.

    Balance Theory

    This theory was given be Theodore Newcomb. According to this theory, group is formed by understanding the similar attitude for common goal. It is very important for management to identify employees who have same thinking regarding any kind of objectives which has to be achieved. In this model, when two or more individuals have same attitude towards achieving the goal, then group can be formed.

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    In accordance with the case, with Anna if some other employee think the same way as Anna does, then they can form a group and provide proper care to Richard.



    According to the case given, it was found that Richard who cannot speak or listen was not able to convey his requirements properly. I understood the issue and for providing proper care to Richard, I thought of conveying this issue to all my superiors and colleagues so that Richard could be helped. In my context, I tried to convey the issue so that proper steps could be taken. With regard with communication, I communicated with everyone so that they understand the issue. I want the management to get a person who knows sign language so that communication with Richard could be effectively done. But no one supported me, instead they thought that I was doing it just get higher post.


    It is the responsibility of health and care providers to understand their patients and accordingly they should provide them proper treatment so that they could overcome their illness easily. Similarly, in this case, management should have done same to know the issues faced by Richard and should have hired a person who could understand sign language. In this way, they would be able to provide proper care and support. Richard got upset when no one was able to understand what he is trying to explain.

    Power issue

    In this issue, Anita was the senior support worker who did not supported ideas or suggestions given by anyone. Being a senior worker, it is the responsibility of Anita to take the suggestions or ideas given by the junior employees. This would be helpful in motivating and encouraging employees and it would also improve their performance level. Seniors should use their power for the betterment and for the support of their employees and not for demotivating them.


    In personal and professional aspect, skills are very important for so as to complete the given task effectively. Following are the skill which I should possess

    Problem solving

    As working at mental health hospital, I faced different types of issue for which I have to take instantly and accordingly I need to take appropriate step with the help of which I would be able to solve problems easily. There many issues like conflicts among patients, which has to be solved instantly.

    Decision making

    It is very important for me to take appropriate decisions so that I would be able to save my time and could focus on other areas as well.

    Time management

    There are many cases in which I have to take care of many patients at a time. In such cases it is very important to attend all the patients and to also to get spare time in which I perform my personal work. In this context, it is very important to manage time properly and effectively.

    Managing stress

    In this profession it is very important to manage stress. It is very difficult to handle patients with mental issues. As a result it is very important in this profession to manage stress.

    Listening skills

    It is very important to listen to patients so that proper treatment could be provided them. It requires focus and attention so that appropriate step or proper response could be given.


    From this report, it can be stated that if formation of groups there are many models given by different people. Among the three theories of group formation, the best one in this case could be used is Punctuated equilibrium model as it has a specific time in which patient could be taken care and this would be helpful in achieving the desired goals easily. Further, seniors should use their power so as to provide motivate their employee and not to demotivate them. Moreover, listening skills and stress management is very important, working as a care provider at mental health hospital.


    • Brown, C.A. and McIlroy, K., 2011. Group work in healthcare students’ education: what do we think we are doing?. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education.
    • Elwyn, G., Greenhalgh, T. and MacFarlane, F., 2001. Groups: A guide to small group work in healthcare, management, education and research. Radcliffe Publishing.
    • Greenhalgh, T., 2008. Role of routines in collaborative work in healthcare organisations. BMJ, 337.
    • Kirk, K. and McManus, M., 2002. Containing families’ grief: therapeutic group work in a hospice setting. International journal of palliative nursing.
    • Payne, M., 2014. Modern social work theory. Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Rodham, K. and Bell, J., 2002. Work stress: An exploratory study of the practices and perceptions of female junior healthcare managers. Journal of nursing management.
    • Thomas, K., 2003. In search of a good death: Primary healthcare teams work in new framework for better care of the dying at home. BMJ: British Medical Journal.

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