Organisation values can be defined as internal principles and ethics which compile companies in case of every situations prevailing in the marketplace. It interacts, influence and work with collective efforts to meet organisational objectives. Values have different role to play which creates positive culture in the organisation. Microsoft Corporation is Multinational Technology Company based in Washington, deals in personal computers, electronics and computer service. In this report, organisational structure is taken into consideration to evaluate importance of organisational design theory. Analysis of different approaches will be carried out to create skilled and dedicated teams of employees. Research for this report will be carried out to identify emerging Human Resource developments. At last, organisational design and change management will be discussed to identify relationship between them and adaption will be evaluated.
P1 Importance of Theories of Organizational Design
Organisational design is sequential steps which provide assistance to identify workflow in context of fun functional factors of the organisation so that changes can be introduced effectively. In relation to organisation it results in efficient design which can lead to better productivity in business operations. Microsoft Corporation is one of the largest multinational technology company based in Washington, it provides personal computers software and electronics. Organisational design is important because it helps in enhancing efficiency, decision making, improve quality and increase profit margins. On the other hand if company fails to maintains proper and effective organisational design it can lead to less coordination, lower standard of goods and services, inefficient employees, etc. There are certain framework and principles which assist management to design effective organisational design for Microsoft Corporation. First principle is Corporate Self Reflection which states that companies should first differentiate its abilities to serve its client in a better way so that every procedure and operation is directed in satisfying customers. Another is Designed With DNA which states that company should design organisation in right framework so that important and critical operations can be differentiated. This will help organisation in designing which leads to less confusion and effective execution of activities. It is necessary that Microsoft Corporation analyse changing business environment and its impact on organisational structure to address business issues. It is essential that organisation fix their structure at end and first implement changes in organisation.
Agile organisation are those business that act quickly and effectively towards changing environment of business. These are also known as entrepreneurial venture which have main objective of focusing on consumers and to provide qualitative products and services. Such organisations have characteristics like continuous learning, effective communication process, efficient workforce and Participative style of leadership.
There are different organisation design theories for Microsoft Corporation to design and implement changes such as change theory and transformational leadership theory.
Change Theory: This theory was purposed by Kurt Lewin and lay emphasis on three different stage of change which needs to have prior learning. First phase is Unfreezing which includes finding existing methods and techniques which are used by current employees. In this stage positive factors are strengthen towards implementing change. Second phase includes modifications in developing skill of feelings, attitude and behaviour in bringing changes in Microsoft Corporation. Last phase is Refreezing, objective is to maintain changes that are introduced in the organisation and it should become standard method.
Transformational Theory: In this approach of leadership style directs and tries to build positive and effective changes in followers. Such leaders have main objective of focusing on supporting members and business as whole, followers of leaders trust, admire, loyal and respect them. This ensures that they work harder in direction of achieving organisational objectives thus enhance overall productivity of business and its operations. In case of Microsoft Technology plc, leaders need to understand its team members so that moral and values can be developed in their leadership style. This also helps managers to bring changes in organisation by influencing employees through leadership and making them understand about benefits of introducing change in organisation. To introduce changes this theory considers four factors such as Inspirational Motivation which suggests that transformational leadership promotes vision, mission and values to members. Second is Intellectual Stimulation supports members to be innovative and creative so that they come up new ideas in implementing changes. Another is Idealised Influence believes that leaders should have same values which they want their followers to have. Last is an Individualised Consideration state that leaders should be mentor for their followers and provide them with rewards for productivity and creativity.
P2 Analyse Various Techniques and Approaches in Developing Human Resource
There are different approaches and techniques by which knowledgeable, motivated and experience employees and individuals can be analysed. Some of them are as follows:
The content and process theory of motivation impact management policies and procedures so that they can study the factors which motivates employees at a workplace. Microsoft Technology plc will apply these theories so that they can develop motivated workforce in the organisation, some of them are as follows:
Content theory of Maslow hierarchy of needs: this is developed by Abrahim Maslow in 1940s. The story describe level of needs by which employer can motivate employees to work with productivity in the organisation. First name is psychological needs that represents basic needs of the human being to survive like air, water, food. These needs to be fulfilled first so that employees works effectively after satisfying the needs. Second safety and security which relates to protection, healthy lifestyle, safety from natural and criminal incidents.Â Microsoft Corporation can provide financial security, insurance policies, and healthy working environment to satisfy these needs of an employee. Next is Belongingness which relates to affection, love and acceptance in the social groups. Last and the highest level in Maslow hierarchy theory of need is self actualisation this need is related to using full potential and getting better job positions and rolls in the current and new organisation. These are all the factors that can be used as a motivating factors by the manages of Microsoft Corporation so that company gets motivated and knowledgeable employees to work within the direction of achieving business goals and objectives. Managers of Microsoft Corporation need to analyse every employee so that it can identify the factors by which they can be motivated and their productivity can be enhanced.
Process theory of Vroomâs expectancy theory: unless the content theory, process theory of motivation emphasise on the process of motivating and let it with the three factors. Need, equity and reinforcement, This define motivation as a process and a result of different independent behaviour that need to be analysed by the employer so that employees can be motivated. The factor expectancy states that managers and leaders should have strong believe that collective actions and their efforts can bring success in the business if they work with productivity. Next factor is instrument define is that there is a connection between activity and goal,Â productivity leads to more rewards for the organisation. Last factor is balance which defines the degree to which workforce value aboutÂ Results as success for the organisation. Managers of Microsoft Corporation should determine that employees are motivated on what type of factor and provide same to them. Every personnel is different when it comes to motivational factors and can drive through various monetary and non â monetary rewards. Thus it is important that this process theory of motivation is used for staff to increase their motivation so that they can work towards achieving organisational goals.
Human capital theory, it is combination of personal attributes, competencies, knowledge, social skills which is needed to create measurable values. This Is based on the studyÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â That knowledge can be translated in the form to achieve organisational objectives. In the context of Microsoft Corporation, human capital theory is the investment made by the business so that they can develop skills and personal attributes of the employee with the help of training and development program. The story has a strong believe that if company invest in the training then it will Higher productivity, increased efficiency and positive development in the skills which will bring enhance performance of overall business.
Knowledge management: it is that discipline which assist company to identify, evaluate and sharing. Policies and procedures are designed in such a way that knowledge management can be Implemented in the Microsoft Corporation which includes different dimensions like strategies on which objectives are dependent to create valid knowledge. Next is organisational processes which also needs knowledge management to effectively implement in the operations, technology is another factor that must be design and implement which can fulfil requirements of every level of the organisation. In order to avoid confusion regarding the information which is needed by the managers at every level of the organisation Microsoft Corporation need management and leadership to effectively coordinate activities.
P3 Emerging Human Resource Development
Human resource department of an organisation is responsible for activities that concerned with employees from recruitment till retirement. There are some of the major functions that will help Microsoft Corporation to manage its workforce effectively.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Recruitment and selection:Â this is one the important function that any Human Resource department of organisation performs. This includes inviting participants and screening out candidates so that skilled and talented staff can be selected. This helps Microsoft Corporation to invite huge number of qualified candidates so they perform effectively and contribute in increasing overall organisation and its operations performance. In context of Microsoft Corporation, when company is operating at global level it need to acquire skilled personnel so that it have competitive advantage and reduce cost incurred in recruitment wrong and unskilled employees. For this there is emergence of outsourcing companies that are professional in attracting and selecting talented employees with the help of various research aptitude and assessment test questions. This helps company to find suitable personnel for required job.
Orientation: This is another fundamental function which provides introduction session at the time of joining so that they get familiar with environment of the organisation. It is also needed so that new candidate understands objectives, goals, vision and mission of the Microsoft Corporation. There is recent development in this function as there are use of technology these present scenarios as human resource department of Microsoft Corporation in orientation programs. These days it is done with presentation by head to make clear the vision and mission of company rather than traditional method of introduction.
Maintaining working conditions: This is another development in Human Resource activities that have seen in recent years that company provides balanced working environment to workforce. In this factor organisation gives flexible working hours, work from home, open space, etc. With the help of these activity employees of the organisation is provided with good and positive working environment at workplace in order to achieve personal and professional growth. Microsoft Corporation has done research on study for maintaining and retaining talented workforce in organisation by providing monetary and non â monetary benefits.
Managing relations: this is one of the crucial functions of human resource management that tells company to maintain and build good relationships with their employees. This insures that manages can influence behaviour and productivity of this sub ordinate so that organisational objectives can be achieved. Microsoft Technology plc has policy for balance and healthy well planned relations between the employer and employee. This was done by conducting surveys in global level of company to find out what can be done in order to maintain relations and retain them for long.
Training and development: This is one of the important developments that can be tracing in present business environment that companies undertake to motivate employees. With the help of this process company make efforts to improve the current skill set so that they can contribute more productively in achieving goals and objectives. Microsoft Corporation regularly research about future roles of employees so that managers can identify needs of training and provides development sessions to develop skills.
All these function faces many challenges in there development in organisation and to implement same in operations. Some of them are as follows:
Management changes: as the Microsoft Corporation is working at a global level, there are different incidents when the management of the company changes. When an organisation expense in different regions and countries its internal management also changes. And this is the time which is one of the difficult challenges for the employees to accept and cope up with the recent changes. This can be overcome by support of managers with communicating the benefits and advantages that these changes will bring with them for the employees as well as for organisation. While changing management can trace that performance and productivity of the employees is decreasing and in that case leadership style should be appropriate so that there are less loss for the organisation.
Selection of employees: this is one of the most typical process for the organisation to recruit and select right candidate for the right job profile in the company. In changing business environment it is equally important that employees have desired skills and qualifications so that they can cope up with the challenges in the Microsoft Corporation. To overcome this company can hire third-party consultancy and have professionals to carry out this work.
Diversity in workplace: Microsoft been an international company operates in different regions and countries which makes it prone to diversity in implants. This is one of the containers challenge that any organisation working out a global level faces. To reduce this challenge in emerging HR development, major role is played by leaders and managers to build a culture that creates a positive behaviour to watch a different religions and diversity within the employees.
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P4 Organisational Design and Change Management Relationship
Change model was developed by June quarter, the whole process is divided into eight different sequence of steps. The steps are as follows:
Create urgency: it is very much essential that company have clear picture about the success and advantages that these changes will bring in the business. Does it is equally important that organisation have environment in which employs are totally aware about the changes that are implementing in the organisation and they don't have any resistance towards it. It can be done by engaging them in finding ideas to implement the changes so that they feel empowered to introduce changes in the organisation. In this step Microsoft Corporation will create an environment in which managers and employees will support each other by coming up with creative solutions to bring changes in the operations.
Coalition: it is very hard to implement the whole complex change process at a one go and with effectiveness. Does there is a need of some expertise and professionals who take this Process step-by-step by communicating, delegating authority, decreasing resistance and introducing gradual changes. With the help of these expertise Microsoft Corporation can easily implement changes and success can be seen. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Creating vision: change is defined as one of the complicated process to implement in an organisation and it is more complex to understand it. To overcome this challenge Microsoft Corporation need to create a clear vision which will help organisation to implement and communicate about the benefits to the employees. This communication and vision will help workforce to work in direction of implementing changes by setting personal and professional objectives
Communication: this is one of the important step in the whole change process theory. This helps in minimising the resistance from the employees by communicating continuously about the changes and the execution part by making them understand about the benefits it will have.
Obstacles: change being a complex process defines there are a number of obstacles while implementing it. This can be reduced by strengthening the power of factors that drive changes present internally and externally in Microsoft Corporation.
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Short wins: change process is a lengthy activities there is a need that it should be divided into small task. There should be smaller targets for the employees and management so that after achieving it they feel motivated and more dedicated.
Build changes: there are many examples where the process has failed because they are not Consistent. There is a need that after the change process has been implemented in the Microsoft Corporation management makes sure that it sustain for long in the environment. This can be done with continuous improvement and controlling action to see sustainability.
Corporate culture: change what is just not meant to be implemented in the organisation until unless it does not impact the overall culture of the business. There is a need that shareholders, employees, third parties are equally in courage to accept the changes that are implemented in the Microsoft Corporation.
Even after the change model, there are a number of barriers that come across while implementing changes. They are as follows:
Employed Resistance: One of the common and most strong barrier that any organisation can face while implementing changes is resistance from employees. It is said to be inevitable challenge that arises due to many factors like unemployment, uncertainties and fear of unknown in the mind of employees. This also makes workforce to stand against the management and oppose the change process. Microsoft Corporation can implement different leadership style, brainstorming sessions and encourage employees to participate Equally in the change process.
Ineffective communication: management need to understand that changes are to be implemented at every level of the organisation does communication should flow in every department. In case if management does not communicate effectively with level one workers this will create a challenge. To mitigate this challenge Microsoft Corporation can Can make employee participate in the execution process and involves their ideas in decision-making.
Poor strategies: changes include strategy starting from planning stage till executing in the organisational design. It is important that company has clear understanding about their vision and mission and frame objective to implement change. There is a need that Microsoft Corporation make strategies from the planning process and set objectives which should be in direction of vision and mission of the company.
Lack of consistency: there are many examples when changes are not kept in regular in terms of operation in organisation. This can create Barrier and affect the efficiency of whole process like increase in workload, non-achievable targets, negative results. In order to overcome this challenge Microsoft Corporation can tell employees to divide process into smaller activities and achieve short term objectives. For this manager can divide the whole change process into smaller teams and activities and accordingly delegate the responsibility so that the employee feel empowered and work effectively.
Cultural barrier: one of the most effective thing factor in the change process is employees and their Microsoft Corporation being multinational organisation has difficult and diverse workforce that belongs to different culture. And this can also be seen as a barrier in implementing changes as dissonance will be there. In order to mitigate this barrier, leaders need to understand different cultures and make changes accordingly.
Ineffective leadership: change process of blonde and strategies are made at the top management level of the organisation but execution is a collective effort of every level. Does it is equally important that managers choose leadership style according to the changes and employee behaviour. In this case company can adapt participative, democratic and transformational style of leadership. This will help organisations to minimise the employee resistance and communicate effectively at every level.
It can be acknowledge from the above discussion that basic principles and ethics of company comprises its value. Organisational design is step by step tool that help management to manage functions and workflow in an organisation effectively. There is change theory which lays down three stage of freezing, the freezing and I'm freezing to bring changes in the organisation. Transformational theory of leadership strongly believe that leaders can help organisations to influence employees and changes can be implemented effectively. There is motivational theory of Maslow which identifies different factors as motivators for employees and others theories are human capital and knowledge management. There are a number of functions that human resource department of any organisation performance so that organisational objectives can be achieved and challenges can be mitigate. At last quarter change model which have different steps to implement changes in business and its operations is discuss along with different barriers which create obstacles in the change process.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
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