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    Understanding Health and Well-being


    Health is one of the most deep conditions of living. Health is about the interconnection of several parameters like Physiological, intellectual, and religious or spiritual factors that all plays  important roles. In simple term we recognise health as well functioning of body,

    lack of disease and degenerative disease under control, however different-different people and societies, groups and communities have different-different views about health and treatment of diseases (Ayo, 2012). Individual gives high importance on being healthy because while money and power assists for attaining luxury life that may help their is living, but no one can actually give money for being healthy.

    TASK 1.

    Understand different models of health:

    The term health is a wide term includes various aspects based on different views, sources and beliefs so as a whole term health is divided into different model which makes easy to understand the such different-different aspects of health and having its own importance in different fields. There are the two major models of health:

    Social model of health: It is a model related with the idea framework within which improvements for being healthy and wellness are achieved by giving directions for hard work to trace out the social, economic and environmental issues and influences. This model mainly considering the physiological or biological sphere of disease and illness and also this model is related with the exploring, healing and handling of disease or genetic defects (Baum, 2016).

    Medical model of health: Its a model of healthcare associated with traditional natural science and belief that medical science could heal all disease or genetic defects. Medical approach to disease and to its care is developing speedily and is under persistence and unfavourable review from within the profession. This model focuses on genomics, neurochemical,neuroanatomy etc.

    Comparison between Social and Medical model of health:

    The following are the major differences between social and medical model of health:

    S. No.

    Medical model of health

    Social model of health


    This model is mainly associated with the physiological and biological aspects of disease and illness,

     This model of health considers a wide range of factors such as social, economic and environmental issues and other related influences etc.


    The medical model of health is majorly used by professionals related to health industry.

    On other hand social model of health can be used by a large group of interested people.


    This model is linked only with the exploration , healing and handling of disease.

    Beside  exploration , healing and handling of disease social model is also dealing with detention or prevention of diseases.


    This model of health puts a significant encumbrance on the healthcare system,

    On other hand the social model of health prevents some of that encumbrance.


    In medical model of health disability is a limited to physical, mental or physiological health condition.

    In social model of health disability arises from contacts of individual's functional status with the environment.

    Global health:

    Global health is a term mainly related with health of populations in a global perspective. In simple words its a field of information, knowledge and context that always gives importance on rising health index and accomplishment of equality in health for all people across the glob. In this context there main focus is towards issues that overgrowing national borders or global,political and economic influences.(Benach,2014)

    International health:

    It is a area of health aids and cure, normally related with a public health and also focusing on health issues across territorial border. It is a covers all significant parameters that have major impact on the health of people. These parameter contains factors such as heritable, social, and cultural straddle of groups of individuals, environment factors, including biological and physiological aspects, the political and economic influential factors and some other major issues like population expatriation, battles and riots.

    Global health vs. International health: 

    Although these two terms seems same, however in practical world these have different approach and policies. The following are the major differences between global health and international health:

    S. No.

    Global health

    International health


    Global health includes area of study related with health issues that surpass  countries borders.

    International health includes area of study related with health issues that affect people residing in the under-developing world.


    Development and implementation of solutions often requires global cooperation.

    Development and implementation of solutions often requires binational cooperation .


    Health equity among nations and for all people is a major objective.

    Seeks to help people of other nation.


    Highly interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary within and beyond health sciences.

    Embraces a few disciplines but has not emphasized multidisciplinary.

    TASK 2.

    The determinants of health:

    These are various factors that directly or indirectly affects the health of people all over the world. Health of a society or community depends on these factors that are highly influential. At the time of computation of  health index some factors are used to decide the human health index of a population are often called as determinants of health(Evans,2011). Some of these factors are uncontrollable by human efforts.As per given case studies following are the three major determinants of health:

    Individual Behaviour:

    Health of an individual depends upon individual behaviour , for example if someone is smoking regularly then risk of developing heart and lungs diseases would increases. Governments and organisations all over the world targets dynamic individual behaviours such their day to day activities, products uses and other habits that directly or indirectly affecting health.. Favourable changes in individual behaviour helps to reduce the rates of degenerative disease in this country(Keleher and MacDougall,2015).

    As given in case study one :

    Tina is smoker and feels this helps her to prevent her anxiety. Also Tina has a long history of alcohol and drug abuse which clearly attracts major danger disease of heart and lungs. Instead of smoking and taking drugs she can use exercise, counselling  and yoga as a tool to avoid anxiety and depression.

    As given in case study two: On other hand Alice suffering from post-natal depression and Olive had some drug issues but their human behaviours is different and favourable because they are preventing these problems by using private counselling and taking treatment in private clinic.

    Social Factors:

    Social determinants of health contains the social factors and physical conditions of the surroundings in which people are born, live, learn, play, work, and age. Social determinants of health have impact on wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes. Social detrimental incudes social norms and attitudes,Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods etc(MacDonald,2013)

    As given in case study one : Tina is 32 and unemployed,lives in rented accommodation in an urban area and flats has some problem with damp and has no garden. These all facts shows her unhealthy lifestyle and surroundings causing unfavourable conditions for healths. She is unemployed and single, having low level of literacy that causes barriers for her in taking good steps for healthcare.

    As given in case study two: While Alice  and Olive lives in a renovated four floor town house and also having a cottage in Cotswold which they often visits at weekends for enjoyments that shows that they are aware about the importance of healthcare and social environment in which they are living is pleasant.

    Employment and working conditions :

    Employment and working conditions of individual affects its health directly or indirectly. Individual in employment are more healthier, specially those who have more control over their working conditions whereas an individual is unemployed or with unfavourable working conditions is unable to get better healthcare facility or attracts more diseases(Kreutz,2013).

    As given in case study one :

    Tina is unemployed,lives in rented accommodation. Tina has low level of literacy and finds handling money problematic that clearly shows her inability to obtain better health care services also lack knowledge about health care programs.

    As given in case study two: In case of Alice  and Olive , Alice works at home as an artist  and illustrator and they also have additional income from the rent from local investment property that shows they have good financial condition and Alice have a good working condition which is favourable condition as they are able to obtain better healthcare services.

    Behavioural risk factors:

    Some behaviours or habits have great impact in the health of people such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet and other such behaviours(Mitchell,2013). In simple words behavioural risk factors are those behaviours that enhancing chances of developing illness or unhealthy condition. These are the following two factors based on given case studies:

    Major Smoking-Related Diseases:

    Cigarette smoking enhances the risk of heart and lungs disease.In this context it is considerable risk factor for given case study one as Tina is a smoker which is a behavioural risk factor for her and increases the chances of heart and lungs diseases and in second case study Oliver had a cocaine addiction which got out of control but she had successful treatment in clinic which shows her willing to reduce probable diseases.

    High level of stress and depression:

    Individual suffering from stress and depression usually attracts towards means which are unfavourable for health. As given in case study one Tina has  a long history of alcohol and drug abuse due to depression. Tina should use other ways to reduce depression such as yoga, exercise, counselling etc.

    Biomedical risk factors:

    These factors includes medical diseases that are occurred due to other risk factors such as high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, coronary heart diseases etc. These are the following two major biomedical risk factors:

    1. Coronary heart diseases: This arise due to smoking and drugs related activities. As in given case Tina and Olive have drugs abuse so chances of such disease is higher.
    2. High blood pressure: The main reason of high blood pressure is depression and drugs addition. In given case Tina is suffering from high depression and Olive has drug addiction so chances of high blood pressure is rises for them.

    Ways to avoid risk factors for health:

    There are different-different ways to prevent the risk factors to health that open door towards a healthy life. These are the following ways to avoid risk factors :

    1. Live a healthy lifestyle. Living a "heart healthy" life is the best way to reduce the chances of developing heart sicknesses/problems. Exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight, and eating a healthy, low-fat diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits, and other vitamin-rich foods are the very important things laid at the corners of buildings of "heart healthy" living(Priest, 2013).
    2. Try to avoid or limit the consumption of caffeine, alcohol, and other recreational drugs.
    3. Take a regular physical exams and tell your doctor right away about any unusual symptoms you may have and get benefits of all healthcare programs.

    TASK 3.

    Two different theories of well being

    Well-being refers to the living and fairing well. Its quality of life and prosperity, positive physical and mental health, sustainable thriving communities.(Seligman,2012)Basically well being is the measure of social progress and arguably, the goal of good government and charitable activity.As in work this enables people to increase their productivity and allows to learn new skills in better way. And in personal and social life reduce expenses and enhances savings. There are two different theories of well being which is discussed as below:





    This refers to the person who has high life satisfaction with their life and who experience the more positive affect and less negative affect so it would be deemed to have high level of structure well being.

    The theory of objective well being refers to the low life satisfaction and often people have unsatisfied needs which leads to negativity. As this is not influenced by the emotions , opinions or personal feelings.


    As this is focus on the identification of problem and suggestion of the problem.

    Similarly this is also focus on the adaption of problem and solution to the problem.


    Is is basically focus on the individual goals in order to avoid the harm and participate in social form of life.

    As this mainly focuses on the universal goals to avoid harm.

    Different ways by which physical and psychological well being can be enhanced

    As to improve the physical and psychological well being there are different ways which can be helpful. As the most of mental and physical problems comes from the emotions. So it is very important to people to accept the emotions(Viner,2012). The people spend more energy on the avoiding their emotions than other do on actually feeling them. By taking daily calculative risk one can be healthy by mentally and physically also. So it is very important to come out of comfort zone. The  people thinks about future and some think about the past. So it is very important to live in the present moment so that physical and psychological well being can be improved.

    Sometime people take life too seriously and this gives the stress and other disease to people. So to be healthy by physically and psychologically it is important to laugh. The values and beliefs plays an important role in the life so one should determine their value and beliefs for the balance life. As gratitude is right attitude so people should be thankful for the small things also and it can helpful in improvement of physical and psychological well being.


    With the help of above mentioned report, it is being concluded that health is divided in different models to target major issue in all fields and many organization all across the glob is trying to solve these issues. By comparing global and international health, its become easier to sort out the major difficulties related to all geographical locations. Significant detriments of health have its own importance in order to find many risk factors to health and ways to avoid and prevent them as regards with given case studies. In this report in last task by understanding different theories of well-being and factors affecting them assist to enhance physiological well-being.   


    • Ayo, N., 2012. Understanding health promotion in a neoliberal climate and the making of health conscious citizens. Critical public health. 22(1). pp.99-105.
    • Baum, F., 2016. The new public health (No. Ed. 4). Oxford University Press.
    • Benach, J. and et. al., 2014. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual review of public health. 35. pp.229-253.
    • Evans, J. and et. al., 2011. Health, illness, men and masculinities (HIMM): a theoretical framework for understanding men and their health. Journal of Men's Health. 8(1). pp.7-15.
    • Keleher, H. and MacDougall, C., 2015. Understanding health(No. Ed. 4). Oxford University Press.
    • MacDonald, R., Kreutz, G. and Mitchell, L. eds., 2013. Music, health, and wellbeing. Oxford University Press.

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