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    Cigarette Smoking Behavior & Reduction In Violence


    The current research report mainly focuses on the two articles which are related to the mental adults. In these two articles it gives stresses on how mental ill people are more likely to adopt cigarette behavior habit. The current research topic describes the analysis of reduction in violence among the mental patients and even there is reduction in suicidal attempts. Research will help to critical analyses the article in the effective and the efficient manner. In includes background, review of literature, critical appraisal of two selected articles and conclusion. Background provides the justification why this article has been chosen. Review of literature mainly provides the description of the two articles. Besides this it helps to analyze the policy which has been made by government which has helped in reduction in violence among the mental adults. Even it discuses about the increasing habit of mental adults towards cigarette smoking. With the search strategy the most suitable article has been adopted which helped to critically analyze the two topics. In another section the two articles are critically appraised by analyzing different parameters which is then followed by conclusion. The conclusion has been made by studying the all the areas and all the aspects clearly of the two articles.


    There are several reasons which are involved in choosing these topics. The main reason reason for choosing the topic is that there is a growing concern for the mental people. In present times mental patients are more involved in crimes and all the ill legal activities. Even the growing competition is the reason for stress among the people which is making them mentally ill. I wanted to know the reasons why they are adopted these kinds of habits and behavior. Besides this there are various policies which are made by government is that policy and rules and regulations are helping the patients or not. To find out these answers I have chosen this as my topic. I have found that there are several reasons which are provoking the mental patients to adopt these kinds of practices. With that because of these articles which are connected to the mental patients so it is very useful for me that I should study these topics and land into conclusion. This topic has been creating interest in me because of the conditions which is prevailing in the country. By studying this topic I will able to gain knowledge about different aspects of which mental patients are going in this direction. I chose this topic because of the recent government policy towards the mental patients. Even media has also been involved in the topic effectively. I want to analyze their scenario also which is also affecting the mental patients life.


    Search Strategy

    For making the research effective and proper analysis of the hospitality topic is very important for the author to use correct sources to gather information which can help in analyzing the case. Another important factor is that it is significantly important to select the research topics which suit the two articles. Because there are many information on the topics which are related to the present topics. Because of this the major task is to select the most appropriate one (Cronin and et.al, 2014). The review of literature has to involve the topics like mental patients behavior towards the illegal things. The topic related to impact of policy and rules and regulations on the violence done by mental ill patients are also relevant according to the present topic. The major part is to select the topic when this task is done various sources are used to find the relevant information on the present topic.

    Electronic Databases

    Various kinds and types of databases are selected to choose the topic. The latest information can be derived from the electronic database as in electronic databases all the information is updated frequently and author can get the most relevant information. Most of the information as well as knowledge is gained from the publish papers, articles regarding the mental ill patients scenario. Since this is the topic which is most talked about so because of this reason there are many findings and the researches are made on this topic (Jackson, 2010). This is helpful for the author as it will get the information. apart from this several information are derived from online, journals, website etc. the most searches databases are emerald insight, Wiley etc. apart from this there are also different sources which are helpful in finding the information.

    General Internet Searching

    This is the most common and one of the easiest sources for searching the information. Internet searching is good because as there are different types of matter which are available on the search engines. Author gets choice regarding the matter. In case of the mental behavior of the patients and the mental policies there is different relevant information which is available (Wallech and et. al, 2013).The most common used search engines are the Google and the Wikipedia as they give information which is relevant and with reliability and suitability. The information which is collected by the author is appropriate because of the topics which have been used by it.

    Search Terms

    Search terms are the terms which are related to the topics which are given by the author so that they can land on the relevant conclusion. Besides this the search terms which is selected by the author has to be relevant with the present topic. In this key terminologies are used by the author to find the relevant information (Relevo and Balshem, 2011). Through the search terms work becomes easier for the author as they mostly land on the specific information. This is basically used to narrow down the search in one direction. The search terms which are used by the author to gather the relevant information are mental patients habits towards cigarette smoking, policies, rules and regulations made by the government for mentally ill.

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    Inclusion Criteria

    There are two different criteria one is the inclusion and the other is the exclusion. In this the topics which are most relevant to the present topic are included in the inclusion criteria. There are various searches which are found that are similar to the present topic. But author had selected which appropriately match the present topic (Whitman and Mattord, 2011).

    Study design- the articles of the author which has been published in the peer reviewed journal are generally selected.

    Language- the author is interested in those articles and the publication which are of the English language.

    Time of publication- articles and the publication are selected which has been done recently in between the period of 2000-2014.

    Overview of Literature

    In case of the literature review there are various types of literatures which are available. These literatures are very helpful in the present topic as through these literatures authors gets help and because of this there land into desired conclusion. These topics are selected because many researchers have been made but on this exact topic. The areas regarding to the behavior of the mental patients have not be discussed. Because of this I have chosen this topic as it will help to analyze the behavior of the mentally ill patients. The first topic helps to understand the scenario why the government has made rules and regulations for the mental retarded patients. Even besides this because of this how the policy has have positive impact on the mental patients. Whereas the second topic says that the person who are engaging in smoking cigarettes are the one which are having mental problems and stress. They are adopting this because of their condition.

    This topic is needed to be analyzed because they are impacting our day to day life. Increasing crimes is a result of the mental patients and even they are doing more suicide attempts. These have to be learnt by the people even everyone should know about this. The topics are related with general things so it has to be critically appraised so that it will help the people afterwards. Even in this there are cases where it is seen that mental patients are like to smoking but when it was surveyed it said that the adults who are mental ill are more prone to the smoking habit. Besides this there arte factors which need to be analyzed about the crime and the most important things is the factor in the mental ill patients which provoke them to adopt crimes. Because of these reasons I have chosen to do research on this topic.


    There are different types of methodology which has been applied in this case to critique the two topics. Research design, data analysis is perfectly done to analyze and evaluate the two topics. To successfully analyze the topics Cormack model is used so that it gives desired result.

    Critical appraisal guidelines/ Cormack’s Framework

    This model is adopted by the researchers mainly for reviewing the data thorough papers and even to evaluate the topics through quantitative point of view. The authors have appropriately defined the criteria which are included in the report. Through these areas it is very easy to analyze the matter and even help to evaluate it. Quantitative aspect is included in this area because of this it helps to find out the reliability and the suitability of the factors which helps to get the desired result and conclusion (Stocchetti and Kukkonen, 2011). the research articles is basically analyzed through the Cormack model as this helps to make the appropriate decision and even the most important part of this it refers to all the aspects which are beneficial in evaluating the topics.

    Critical Appraisal of the article 1

    • Title- the title which is selected is appropriate according to the topic since it is covering all the areas. One of the important points is that it is telling about the reduction in crimes because of the governmental action which has been taken for the mental patients.
    • Author- the author is highly qualified and attained degree from the university in human psychology. The topic which has been selected is according to its field and even because of this he is having vast knowledge in the particular field.
    • Abstract- in case of the abstract all the relevant information is given as through abstract the topic can be easily understood by the author (Hammersley and Traianou,2012). But the major drawback is it has not been focused on the attitude of the mental ill adults it has only been concluded about this.
    • Introduction- the topic is not clearly defined in the introduction. It has been shown through the real incident but still it is confusing to understand that what basically it is talking about. This is talking less about the topic as it has not been fully focused on the problem.
    • LR- in the literature section all the information arte given which can help the author to analyze the topic effectively. The material which is given is appropriate and even clearly defined.
    • Method- the method which is adopted by the researcher is the secondary method as research has been made and through that research the results have been evaluated. Because of this some information has been lacking which can only be derived through primary research techniques (Scarpa and Azzalini, 2012).
    • Subjects-the subjects who are defined in the case are properly defined as there are different headings which are clearly defined.
    • Sample- the sample method is not clearly defined.
    • DC- the data which is collected from the different sources are not clearly mentioned which is creating some of the problem.
    • Ethical consideration- due ethical consideration is given in the topic. All the headings has been analyzed and covered by analyzing the aspects ethically.
    • Results- the result which is given regarding the topic is confusing as it is not specifically defining want have been concluded through the study. But besides this the diagrams which have been used in are good with their help it is easy to analyze the data (Khalid, 2009).
    • DA- the information which is given in the report is according to the diagram so it is easy to understand through the diagrams and tables.
    • Conclusion and recommendations- in the conclusion area it is specifically given about what has been concluded through the report.

    Critical Appraisal of the article 2

    • Title- in case of the title which clear, short and informative. The entire important thing is included in the title.
    • Author-the author is qualified and knows about the topic in deep.
    • Abstract- in case of abstract which is given in the case as it is focuses directly on the topic. It is not creating any confusion about this.
    • Introduction- in introduction it is clearly mention that what is in the case further. Even the points which has been covered in the study are clearly have been defined in the introduction (Miller and et. al,2012).
    • LR-in case of the literature section which is not given clearly as various headings in which the case has been divided are similar to one another.
    • Method- the method which is used in the case study is secondary data analysis. There are different types of respondents which are used so that appropriate evaluation can be made.
    • Subjects- the main subject which is defined in this adoption of cigarette smoking habits in mental ill persons.
    • Sample- there is no specific description of sample is given as in this it is written that data is collected through various groups.
    • DC- data which is collected from different groups are appropriate for the case study and the topic (Qu and Dumay, 2011).
    • Ethical consideration- there is fully ethical consideration is given in the article. Various aspects have been ethically analyzed.
    • Results- the results have to calculate effectively through various diagrams and the graph.
    • Conclusion and recommendations- the conclusion which is given in the article is clear as it is most appropriate conclusion according to the report.


    After evaluating all the aspects of the mental patients in reduction in violence and cigarette smoking behavior. It can be concluded that mental ill persons are more stressed than the normal ones. For them smoking is a habit which they feels that which gives relief to the body. In case of violence yes there is huge reduction in violence as the governments have made strict rules against the crimes. The recommendation has to be made on the fact that the scenario which has helped to switch onto the conclusion were not enough as there has to have more cases. Another recommendation is on the data analysis factor as huge data can be analyzed so that more point of view that would be more useful in analyzing the case.


    • Cronin, P. and et.al., 2014. How to Critically Appraise the Clinical Literature. Academic Radiology.
    • Hammersley, M. and Traianou, A., 2012. Ethics in Qualitative Research: Controversies and Contexts. SAGE.
    • Jackson, S., 2010. Research Methods: A Modular Approach. Cengage Learning
    • Khalid, A. N. S., 2009. Reflexivity in Qualitative Accounting Research. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting.
    • Kothari, R. C., 2004. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques.

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