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    Theoretical Approaches of Crisis Management in Hospitality

    University: Coventry University

    • Unit No: 7
    • Level: Undergraduate/College
    • Pages: 14 / Words 3539
    • Paper Type: Minor Case Study
    • Course Code: 208TH
    • Downloads: 346
    Question :


    Due to outbreak of food positioning in restaurant chain, terrorism in a resort destination and volcanic eruption happen on a holiday island. The tourism and hospitality industry is mainly prone to crisis including manmade and natural occurs in many locations. In context to tourism, crisis management is a process and planning directed towards the bad effects that cause crisis and disasters in a Tourism and Hospitality industry. It creates an opportunity for the tourism industry and helps to achieve progress in the system and procedures. In this modern world, the use of advanced technology helps to deal with the effects of crisis. It can be managed with the help of various theoretical models.

    Learning Outcomes

    LO2. Evaluate communication method and tactics used by tourism organisations or tourist destinations to manage effective to deal with crises.

    LO3. Use theoretical approaches of crisis management in tourism and hospitality in a real situation.

    LO4. Develop anargument around the stages of the “framework of disaster management”.

    LO5.Analyse the proactive and reactive management strategies of crisis within the global perspective of tourism

    LO6. Identifyt he consequences of effective or ineffective management of crises and disasters on a tourism destination.


    Provide an individual case study that examines communication tools and strategies used by tourism organisations or tourist destinations to manage effective recovery from crises (LO2). Also, apply theoretical approaches of crisis management in tourism and hospitality in a real situation (LO3). Produce an argument around the steps of the “framework of disaster management” (LO4). Analyse the proactive and reactive management strategies of crisis within the global perspective of tourism (LO5). Assess the consequences of effective or ineffective management of crises and disasters on a tourism destination (LO6). Detailed out suggestion on the study of tourist destination or a tourism company. The case study should also use a wide variety of crises examples from the industry. Explain with the help of examples to within the last 10 years and use examples from both natural and manmade threats and disasters.

    Answer :


    Tourism is about the travel for pleasure or business. This is considered as an act and process which includes spending of time away from home in direction of recreation, relaxation and usage of commercial provision but not for more than one consecutive year. There is huge contribution of such tourism activities towards the development of the nation. This will aid in development of different facilities along with infrastructure. Occurrence of high flow of foreign currency further contributes in strengthening of nation's economy. This enables them in creation of new business or job opportunities that simultaneously aid in removal of unemployment situations. There are many acts that impacts the tourism activities negatively at worldwide level. These are of both kind i.e. man made and natural. Activities related to terrorism falls under the category of man made acts that impacts the tourism negatively at large level. This creates the threat upon the safety and security of tourism destinations along with the tourists (Argomaniz and Vidal-Diez, 2015).

    The threat which is considered under this report is related to terrorism activity in Paris on November 2015. The main objective of this report is about improvement of understanding regarding tools and strategies which were used by the destination in process of recovery from crises. The aspects covered in this report includes analysis of communication tools and strategies used by tourist destinations for effective recovery from identified crises, theoretical approaches can be used for the purpose crises management by destination in real situation and arguments around to the framework of disaster management. Also, includes determination of proactive and reactive management strategies adopted by destinations at global level to grab safeguard from crises and impact of effective management of crises or disaster on improvement of destination.

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    Main Body

    Communication tools and strategies adopted by destination for effective recovery from crises

    Paris is the capital of France and one of the most renowned tourism destination. This is considered as the global center for art, fashion, gastronomy and culture. In comparison to the other destinations of France, Paris is the one where highest number of tourists were visit every year for different purposes. This would be the reason that tourism was one of the major source of income within Paris. In 2018, the number of tourists visit to Paris was around 17.95 million for the purpose of sightseeing and shopping. Continuous development and overall improvement in all the different activities, sector and economy of Paris is highly dependent over the tourism activities. The different number of places which were largely famous from the very long time and exists in Paris includes Notre Dame, Disneyland Paris, Louvre Museum, Eiffel Tower etc. All these have significant contribution behind the attraction of large number of tourists at Paris. Presence of such different number of qualities and efficiencies, bring an obligation over the destination government that take all necessary security measures for creation of safe environment that able to provide safety to all local and foreign residents along with tourists exists at that place (Kepel, 2017).

    In terms of security, Paris has presence of effective security policies and systems. Effective alignment of both in positive direction is sufficient in nature for safeguarding each and everyone's interests. Unfortunately, the security system was breached on 13th of November 2015. This was the date when terrorists were attacked on Paris and involved in different terrorism activities such as mass shooting, suicide bombing and hostage of civilians. This act of terrorism unveils the actual situation of security system of Paris along with the policies they used for securing the destination. The total number of civilians died due to the action of such unfortunate event were around 131. The person's who got the injuries were more than 400. This was the incident that creates the threat among the tourists about their safety in Paris. The impact of same resulted into decrement of the number of tourists in following years. The negative impact of incident over tourism impacted the whole economy. This is the major sector that contribute most towards the development and improvement of nation through creation of large amount of job opportunities and ascertaining high flow of foreign currency. So, decrement in Paris tourism resulted into slowdown in the growth of economy and nation. Simultaneously, the impact of same of was ascertained by the other business sectors that worsen the situation more.

    It is utmost duty over the authorities of destination that take all necessary measures for fast recovery from the negative impact of such incidents and rebuild the same positive environment. Apart from this, all the different business sectors are required to adopt the strategies and measures from their own side. This not only provide the support to authorities of nation but creates the trust of people upon the business services. This depicts that all tourism organisations under the tourist destination like Paris has the prime duty to take the measures and build strategies that not help to recover from the negative impact of crisis but simultaneously aid in improvement of safety standards too(Kollias, Papadamou and Arvanitis, 2013) .

    There are number of communication tools and strategies were used by Paris as tourism destination for the recovery from the negative impact of terrorist attack on 13th November 2015. The detailed description of such tools and strategies along with their effectiveness in procedure of recovery is understood from the description provided below:

    The French government on same day took the decision with the help of political parties about declaration of state emergency. This last for 12 days. There are number of operations were taken on those days by police and military forces. They successfully tracked down the perpetrators of attack and message was sent to the whole world that France is moved on from such event. This prompt action of police officers was considered as the effective communication strategy of France to deliver the message among the world about their concern for the safety of residents and tourists along with their ability regarding tackling of any kind of situation within minimal period of time. This action played the significant role regarding deliverance of the message that Paris is still safe for the tourists and residents. Along with this prompt action, there are number of changes were made under the existing legislations related to state emergency. These are related to extension of surveillance power and limitation of freedoms. The state of emergency was extended on the plead of president for next 3 months, just after the occurrence of this incident for effective usage and application of new powers. These new powers had played the major role in process of recovery and creation of trust among the tourists about the safety standards in Paris (Khosrokhavar, 2013). The extension of powers after attack under the situation of state emergency includes;

    • It has been authorised to the authorities regrading search of houses day and night without any warrant. The limitation present in previous law of 1955 was also removed and allowed the search of the house of lawyer and member of parliament without any notice to prosecutor.
    • Warrant-less search of the electronic devices was authorised and even allowed to access and copy the data by law enforcement.
    • The power of House arrest was provided to minister of home affairs in the case when having faith that behaviour of some person can be threat to security and safety of civilians. Also, power is provided regarding limit or temporary suspension of their communications.
    •  New power was provided to government regarding dissolution of groups that take part in acts which are against to any public order.
    • Power was provided under the law regarding blockage of websites that promote terrorism without any intervention of judge (Measures to overcome from Paris attack. 2019).

    The different number of benefits which were attained by the destination after successful implementation of these laws includes extra and high security of residents or tourists, stoppage of unauthorised access of visitors, creation of most secured environment and development of belief among the people about safety of their life. This would be the reason that Paris is able to attract the large number of tourists towards their different sites (Oyewole, 2015).

    Application of theoretical approach for crises management in real situation

    The concept of crises management is related with the efforts which are made to reduce the effects the disaster or crises which has happened. The approaches to crises management are the guidelines which provides the direction of tackle through the event of crises. For the context of Paris terrorist attacks, two crises management approaches could have been used which are The Escaping Approach and The Solving Approach. Both of these approaches are analysed below”

    The Escaping Approach – In this approach, the event of crises is managed by creating policies and procedures. This approach makes sure that all the negative impacts of an approach are escaped by the use of policies. In context of Paris terrorist attacks, government took the charge and made sure all the effected individuals are given medical facilities. All the infrastructure which was damaged, was provided to construction companies so that quick damage control can be done.

    The Solving Approach – This approach follows the opposite direction in which instead of developing escaping policies, charged authorities develop policies by which crises situation can be solved. This approach focus on the possibility that this crisis can also bring opportunities. In context of Paris terrorist attacks, government took the charge and made sure that all the infrastructure must be re developed and it can be act as a part of re-construction (Townshend, 2018). 

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    Arguments around to the framework of disaster management

    Disaster management is the term that depicts adherence of measures in conservation of lives and property due to the negative impact of natural and man made activities and actions. Natural disasters are those in which humans have no role such as Flood, earthquakes, volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes etc. All these are also beyond to the control of human being. The impact of these will be minimised by taking corrective actions and measures. The impact of these is always huge over economy and nation. While comparing the impact of these with the man made events, then natural disaster have more worsen impact over nation. There impact is not limited over to some specific aspect. They destroy each and every aspect which comes to their way. The amount of loss ascertained by nation due to the impact of natural disasters can be in millions or billions which is much more in comparison to any type of man made disaster or event.

    Man made disasters or events are those which results into the negative impact over nation and economy due to performance of negative activities. The number of events which are considered under the man made disasters includes Terrorism attacks, race riots, mass shooting etc. These kind of events also have negative impact over nation and economy but less in terms of intensity as compared to the natural one's (Nesser, 2012).

    The government of country has duty to build the effective framework regarding redressal from the negative impact of both kind of disasters i.e. man made and natural. Separate frameworks are needed to be followed by the nation to overcome from the influence of different nature of disasters. The importance of same is ascertained in the way that provides an opportunity in attainment of desired results regarding reduction in the amount of such instances and speedy recovery.

    The aspect which was happened in Paris is man made. It was a terrorist attack on November 2015 where around 130 people became died and more than 400 were injured. The framework which was followed by France for management of man made threats and disasters is evaluated below to determine its effectiveness and understand the reason behind the occurrence of Paris attack. The evaluation is going to be done below on both pre and post functioning aspects of framework (Renner and Spencer, 2012).

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    The pre disaster framework followed by France in respect to handle man made threats specially terrorist attacks includes;

    • Checking of all persons before entry into the country. The necessary documents which are checked includes Passport, personal id, Visa, Residential proof etc. The system followed by the France officials was systematic in nature but required to made it modernise and adapt the technologies that aid in identification of duplicate id's and passports. This will help in restriction of entry upon all unauthorised individuals.
    • They check all the personnels from the metal dictator and their luggage through scanners. Entry of terrorists in France depicts usage of obsolete technologies which were unable to detect the the new and modern weapons. In this regard, they need to adopt new technologies and equipments which help to trace out the modern weapons too (Belkin, 2012).

    The post disaster framework which was followed by France regarding handling of the man made threats like terrorists attack includes;

    • Declaration of state emergency. This is the effective procedure which allows the police to access all different locations and find out the culprits. This would be the reason that police officers are able to catch attackers in very short period of time. This had some flaws due to the restrictions placed by legislation.
    • Usage of presidential power to made changes in law with the aid of parliament. This is one of the effective measure that aid in redevelopment of security trust among the residents and tourists. After attack, changes were made in legislation to provide large number of powers to officers regarding search people without any warrant. This help in recreation of normal situation along with deliverance of secured environment within the nation (Joseph, 2013). 

    Evaluation of proactive and reactive strategies of crises management adopted by destinations at global level

    At global level, there are number of crises are happens on continuous basis which have negative impact over tourism activities. Every different nation has their own way to deal with issues and with their impacts. This would be the reason that on worldwide level, different proactive and reactive strategies are exists and use to overcome from same. If talking about global level than exception always exist. There are many issues which are common at global level and kind of same proactive and reactive strategies are used to dealt.

    While talking about the natural disasters, flood and earthquakes are those which are commonly faced by many nations. This would be the reason that guidelines regarding savage from this crises is common whether pre or post (Stump and Dixit, 2013).

    On the other hand, man made threats which are common at global level includes terrorist attacks and mass shootings. Common policies are exist in relation to this threat and used at global level. In current report, also analysed about one man made threat “terrorist attack”. So, the below study is based upon ascertainment of measures related to this threat only.

    At global level, common proactive and reactive managements strategies were basically used to dealt with the threat of terrorists attacks. The different strategies in respect to same are defined below:


    This includes all strategies which are taken before to the occurrence of any event. The main purpose behind the usage of these strategies will be removal of factors that leads to occurrence of event (Khalil, 2019). In relation to reduction of terrorist attacks, the common strategies which are followed at world wide level includes;

    • Checking of each and every individual of person who wants to enter into the nation. Here, different documents are checked to identify their identity includes passport, visa, personal id, residential proof, reason to visit etc. This will help in ascertainment of their history along with purpose of visit. Any kind of discrepancies in the documents of individual help to grab before to their entry. Also, determination of visit purpose clears out the whole scenario. Proper adherence of this procedure and policies in this respect help all the nations at world wide level to safeguard themselves from such unwanted terrorist attacks.
    • Checking of each and every person by metal detector and luggage with the help of scanner. Metal detector help in identification of hidden weapons from the individuals whereas, scanner find out any kind of harmful objective from luggage. Proper adherence of this system restrict the persons to carry harmful object or weapon with themselves and enter into the nation with bad motive.


    This includes the description of the all moves which are taken after happening of any unwanted event with the purpose of minimising its negative impact and overcome in earliest manner (Fischlin and Onete, 2013). At global level, different number of strategies were adopted commonly to dealt with the situation of terror attack includes;

    • Declaration of emergency situation within the affected and to its near places. Also, all the markets were closed and banned the entry of any civilians. Allowed the police officers to use their power and take the charge of all areas. Afterwards, investigation will be started, detain the attackers and evacuate the individuals from that place.
    • Proper security measures are taken at affected area after the resolution of all situation. For few time, entry of civilian is allowed after going from the proper security check. Each object carried by any passenger or civilian is checked with scanner. Checking of documentation of each and every person. Search without warrant and detention of any suspect is allowed without any approval (Ogun, 2012).

    Above defined were some proactive and reactive measures taken at global level in the situation of facing terrorist attacks. Effective adherence of proactive measures help in restriction of such events. This will diminishes the chance of occurrence of such unwanted events. On the other hand, reactive measures help to overcome in the earliest manner from the negative impact of attacks. This will also further aid in creation of peace at national level.

    Assessment of the impact of effective management of crisis on the improvement of tourism destination

    After this crisis government of France put several efforts toward managing this disasters and crisis for recovering tourism industry from losses. This effective management helps tourist industry by increasing number of visitors, it turn to impact over success and development of tourism sector. It is important for all tourism businesses to prevent bad image and damage to their organisation. Management of crisis in Paris will also assist to all tourism organisations in attraction of maximum number of visitors and increment of their growth and development. Management of Tourism crisis entails developing measures, plans to quickly respond to disaster circumstance adequately to reduce the negative effect to travellers and the tourism organisation (Malik and Zaman, 2013).

    The effective management of consequence related with the crises support the tourism industry of France to get recover from all the losses that it faced at the time of terrorist attack. This in turn support in ensuring recovery in term of getting flow of tourism practices again as it use to be performed earlier. The regular visit of tourist to Paris not only support in improving the tourism industry performance but also help in economical growth of the country. Despite of all this, crises management also support in social development of country by providing the local people with job opportunity in order to serve tourists with best possible benefits (Erlenbusch, 2014).

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    It has been concluded from the above report that crises management is important as provides an opportunity to grow with continuous rate. Majorly, crises are of two type man made and natural. The impact of natural one's was more worsen s compared to man made because these uncontrollable in nature. The terrorist attack in Paris on November 2015 had negative impact over the image of destination. This leads to reduction in number of tourists due to safety issues. Adoption of effective strategy help to overcome from the same. The strategy adopted by Paris as tourist destination to overcome from the negative impact was providence of excessive power to police and limitation upon freedom. This aid the police officers to detain the culprits and send the message to world about their safety measures. The two different measures proactive and reactive have their own separate role to deal with issues and their impacts. Proactive help to restrict and reactive help in reduction of negative impact.

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