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    Thematic Independent Study

    Impact Of Employee Motivation On Customer Service In Hospitality Industry

    Employees are consider as the pivotal assets within the organization that support in delivering and offering range of services to their customers that directly assists in satisfying the requirement of customers (Kandampully, Zhang and Bilgihan, 2015). Therefore, it is essential for the management to engage in motivating their employees those who are rendering services within the hospitality organization so that they can deliver quality services to their customer and guests. Hospitality industry is the leading service industry that offer range of services to their customers therefore, motivation support the employees and staff in serving the requirement of their guests and customers. The present essay will elaborate the impact or effect of employee motivation on the services that they renders and delivers to their customers within the hospitality industry.

    Concept of motivation within hospitality industry

    In order to attain competitiveness as well as success of the company in the competing environment employee motivation plays significant role as it support the staff in rendering effective services within the establishment. The key reason for motivating the staff and employees within the organization is that they would offer best practices and services that results in satisfying the customers. As per the view of Kim and Lee (2013) it has been stated that customer satisfaction is termed as emerging issue or problem within the organization that is overcome through  motivating the workforce that are rendering services within the organization. On the other hand, motivation is termed as the driving force that mainly prompt the actions and activities of the employees to meet the desire of customers through providing them leisure and luxurious hospitality services (Solnet, Kralj and Baum, 2015). On the other hand, the concept of motivation is also termed as the managerial process that excite the employees to offer and deliver the effective services through meeting their unfulfilled thus, it further assists in rendering proper and required services to the customers. However, the

    Theories and models used for motivating the employees

    In beginning when human organization formed various thinkers researches on how individual can be motivated for work. After which different theories introduced on study of human behaviour (Horng, Hu and Liu, 2013). In hospitality industry, motivation plays a significant role. Following are the theories that can be used for motivating employees.

    Maslow's Need hierarchy Theory

    Its a well known theory. In this theory needs are classified in hierarchy manner in order of higher to lower. There are five levels of hierarchy that are briefly discussed below :-

    Physiological Needs –  

    physiological needs are the basic needs of human being which is essential for survival and maintenance of human life such as food, shelter and clothing. As per the view of Úbeda-García, Marco-Lajara and Garcia-Lillo (2013) these basic needs are required to be met first before any other need.

    Safety needs –

    After satisfaction of first need, second need is safety need. It also become inactive after getting satisfied. Under this one searches for economic security and protection from danger.

    Social Needs –

    every human being is belonging to some society. In these respect need of social attention and feeling of belongingness must be achieved. under these individual prefer to work in a group (Law, Buhalis and Cobanoglu, 2014).

    Esteem needs –

    Esteem needs refer to self respect or self esteem. It includes feeling of competency, confidence, increase knowledge moreover individual wants to becoming independent. According to Hon (2012) fulfilment of these needs provides individual strength and confidence. Individual can found himself useful in  organisation.

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    Self-Actualisation needs –

    this term was given by Kurt Goldstein. This is the final step in this theory which involves thinking what are the actual skill of person. In what individual is potentially good and doing that work in which he can use his skill and knowledge.

    According to Maslow, needs follows some sequence and becomes inactive after getting satisfied. But at other side it can not be proved wrong that persons needs are indefinite but this al provides motivation as to work to satisfy those needs (Hogan and Coote, 2014).     

    Maslow's Need hierarchy theory is helpful in hospitality industry as it motivates employees to work to satisfy his needs as per hierarchy structure. Larkin, Pierce and Gino (2012) has also stated that it also help in creating long term relationship of employee with the organisation. Needs motivates employee internally. Its helps in growth of employee as well as also helps in growth of overall organisation.

    Herzberg's motivation Hygiene Theory

    This theory is an extension of Maslow's theory by psychologist name Fredrick Herzberg. It is also called two factor theory as Herzberg has considered two factors in his theory. The author has asked people working in some organisation about  there feeling particularly when they feel good by their job and when they feel exceptionally bad about their job (Grant, 2013).

    This study brings very interesting analysis. The result of their feeling in were significantly different. Good feeling reasons were generally associated with their job satisfaction such as achievement of target, rewards or incentives received by them. Herzberg gives different name for both analysis. According to Kim, Vandenabeele and Palidauskaite (2013) job satisfaction is labelled as motivators and job dissatisfies is labelled as hygiene or maintenance factors. This two factors hygiene and motivators are known as Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation.

    The job satisfaction or motivation can be due to following reasons such as achievement, promotion or growth, increase in responsibilities, recognition etc. The hygiene or dissatisfaction can be due to poor work conditions, fall in status, feeling of insecurity, stiff company policy and administration (Papadopoulos, Stamati and Nopparuch, 2013).

    Herzberg said that opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, he gives a reason, that as removing characteristics of non satisfaction will not result into satisfaction. According to Herzberg, there is a existence if dual continuum.  Therefore opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction and opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction.

    As per the view of Chan, K. W. and Wan (2012) the theory is also being criticised at some points such as people tend to take credit when things go well and on failure blame others. The theory explains job satisfaction actually and not dissatisfaction. But regardless of criticism theory helps business organisation in many ways.

    This theory is used by hospitality industry in planning and controlling employees work. Management can use this in analysing the reasons of employees dissatisfaction and overcome those factors if possible and enhance those activities that result in employee satisfaction level (Chen, C. W., Chang, M. L. and Tseng, C.P., 2012).

    McClelland's need Theory

    This Theory is developed by McClelland's and his associates. This theory is closely associated with learning theory, as per believes of McClelland needs are acquired by experienced events and cultural environment. This theory is focusing upon three needs: Achievement, Power and Affiliation. Coming to first need; Need for Achievement;  it involves feeling like to strive for achievement (Epitropaki, 2013). It is a behaviour of achieving a success and excellence as directed toward competition. There are few characteristics of such persons such as strong desire, they set difficult goals and ready to take risk in their work, they also desire for feedback on their performance. Second need is Need for Power: These are the people who are highly in need of power. This people likes to be in  control of some events and powers. They desires to influence others, they want to change other person, and want to make difference in  others life. People who highly need power posses some characteristics such as desire to give direction to others, person want to exercise control or lead others and this type of people want to make a relationship of leader and follower with other persons (Vance, Siponen and Pahnila, 2012). Third and last need of this theory is Need for Affiliation; under this theory person wants to maintain friendly and warm relation with other people. They demand to have people whose friendship and companionship they value.  According to Zelnik and et.al (2012) this kind of people understands the feeling of other persons and try to avoid such acts that gives negative impact in others mind.

    This theory helps in assisting hospitality industry in motivating employees through power and position, through giving task and provide them incentives so employees seek to achieve them and by third need of this theory positive family environment can be established. This theory motivates employees as per their needs that are required to be identified by management.

    Link between employee motivation and customer service

    It has been assessed that employee motivation and customer service is inter-related with each other. As, the motivated employees within the organization would render quality services that support them in satisfying the pleasant and leisure requirement of hospitality customers and guests. As per the view of Lorincová and et.al (2016) it has been identified that there is direct relation between the motivated employees and customer service as it directly lead hospitality organization in accomplishing their goals and objectives. Financial benefits like as bonuses and commissions have long been considered as an essential element in motivating organizational employees. However, intrinsic motivation is a stronger success factor, according to a growing number of studies. Thus, it is clear that motivational benefits should always be provided to the employees so that they can assist the business entity to manage all the service provision in effective manner (Griffin, MacKewn and VanVuren, 2013). It is an apparent fact that motivated employee always work in the best possible manner which further assists in delivering quality services to the clients. Thus, this clearly depicts the relationship between employee motivation and customer service.

    While dealing with the customers, employees must have to maintain politeness and dignity so that they can create good impression over the customers. Hence, this not only ensures proper delivery of services; but at the same time it also allows the customers to promote the services to other customer segments (Agarwal, Kamal and Singh, 2016). Apparently, there is a direct relationship between employees and customers management assignment as while getting products, both have to maintain direct interaction with each other. Thus, there should be suitable relationship among customers and employees because it not only leads to sales enhancement but also maximizes the profitability of business entity.

    Motivational benefits fulfils all the basic needs of the workforces and as a result it leads to employee loyalty and in terms of further outputs, it helps in employee retention. It has been observed that organizations have to pay much efforts in retaining and satisfying the workforce; however due to emphasis on employee motivation, the degree of efforts can be minimized (Lee and Hao, 2015). There are several dimensions of an organization that are concerned with employee motivation; hence chief emphasis should be given on this area of domain. It has been observed that service industries mainly works for the motive of customer satisfaction; hence in this area, employees have to play prominent role.

    Along with customers, employees also needs to have several benefits from the organization as that results in organizational performance and productivity. Moreover, employee satisfaction is also associated with customer service; hence employers have to ensure that proper attention is being laid on employee welfare and encouragement facets (Dahraei and Adlparvar, 2016). Employees only work positively when the efforts are appreciated and recognized by the management in consistent manner. This brings a sense of encouragement in them and as a result, they contribute more in goal accomplishment process.

    Thus, according to the discussion it can be said that employees should get appropriate benefits as per the work done by them because that is a factor of encouragement for them. Employee motivation has a direct impact on organizational productivity and performance; hence the management should ensure that workforces are getting valued as per their contribution in the organization (Chatzipanteli, Digelidis and Papaioannou, 2015). Hence, in simple terms it is clear that in order to deliver better customer services, organizations have to emphasize on employee motivation and encouragement. This not only enhances service provision; but also amends growth and success aspects of the business entity.

    Factors through which employees can be motivated

    In order to attain success of the establishment within the hospitality industry it is essential for the organization to focus on different factors as well as ways through which employees or staff can be easily motivated that support them in rendering quality services to their guests and customers those visits their hotel premises. As per the view of Lee and Ok (2014) there are different factors and measures that support in motivating their staff and employees in the organization that directly outcome in rendering effective services to the ultimate customers. The foremost factor through which employees of the hospitality industry can be motivated is through providing them monetary and non-monetary incentives. With the help of this factor and element management can easily acknowledge the services that are rendered by the staff within the hotel. Along with this it also support in meeting the financial and non-financial requirement of the staff that help them in delivering proper activities within the organization so that guests and visitors can be easily satisfied (AlBattat and Som, 2013). On the other hand, with the help of this factor employees are motivated and driven through accomplishing their financial requirement that direct them towards rendering quality services to their customers.

    According to Karatepe and Karadas (2012) another factor through which staff of the hospitality organization is motivated that is empowering the staff and employees in the industry. This is because as the staff or employees are the one that is directly in contact with the customers therefore, empowering the staff will results in dealing and managing the requirement of customers. On the other hand, Pantouvakis and Bouranta (2013) has also stated that with empowering or providing authority to staff results in motivating them so that they can render proper services to their visitors and customers who visits their hospitality organization. Therefore, it is stated that with providing or delegating authority to employees motivate them to take decisions by their own so that it can directly enhances the overall productivity of the organization.

    As per the view of Vasquez (2014) another factor through which employees can be motivated is through treating people or staff fairly and equality within the organization. With the help of treating employees in fair and equal manner they feel committed and motivated towards the organization that directly outcome in offering quality services to their guests and visitors who visits the hotel. Along with this, Wu, Tse and Liu (2013) has also stated that treating employees in effective and fair manner also support them in rendering effective services related with food, accommodation etc. that outcome in satisfying the ultimate customers. It also support the staff in gaining quality organizational culture that prompt towards rendering adequate services.

    On the contrary to this, Baran, Shanock and Miller (2012) has also stated that through providing effective leadership and management approach within the hospitality industry also support in driven their staff towards the job as well as company. With the effective leadership approach employees can easily engage within the company in order to take crucial decisions for the organization therefore, it motivate and satisfy the employees towards the organization.

    Significance of motivation

    According to the report of British Hospitality Association (BHA) hospitality industry is the biggest contributor in UK in economic development of the country. It is very important to motivate the staff members in the hotels. According to the view of Gravel, Pelletier and Reissing (2016) it is very essential to motivate workers, it will support in increasing the efficiency of the employees and they will be able to deliver better services to clients (Gravel, Pelletier and Reissing, 2016). Hotels can fill the gap between skills required and present qualification of person, by this way people will fell motivated and will be more productive for the organization. By this way firm will be able to improve its efficiency level of services (Grant and Berg, 2012). As per the opinion of Grant and Berg (2012) motivation plays the integral role in reducing the operational cost of the entity. Motivated staff member not only work faster but also individual uses creative and innovative ideas in the workplace for the improvement in its services. It will be multi tasking for the hotel and will stay in the firm for longer period. By this way operational cost of the business unit will get reduced so it will be saving for the firm as it will not have spent more in new recruitment.

    According to the view of Cho,  Xia  and Li (2014) motivation increase satisfaction of workers. As satisfied employee will stay in the hotel for longer period (Cho, Xia and Li, 2014). It is very important to retain talent in the firm for longer duration, by this way employee turnover rate of the entity will get reduced. It will be beneficial for the organization in increasing the profit of the firm. As people will feel happy in the workplace and will put their best efforts for the achievement of common goal. As per the opinion of Grant and Berg motivation to staff embers is very important as it helps to minimize the disputes and strikes in the corporation (Grant and Berg, 2012). As most of the conflicts takes place because people feel dissatisfied with the working process of company. By motivating them, firm will be able to increase communication with them which will help to develop better understanding with employees. So it will be beneficial in reducing the workplace issue to great extent. Motivation will develop transparency in the workplace and people will be able to understand their responsibilities effectively.

    It will enhance their efficiency thus, they will make good relationship with hotel's guest. By this way customers also feel good in the hotel and they will come again and against to experience such kind of excellent services. According to the view of Robinson, Warlow and Berridge (2014) By motivating persons in the organization, employer will be able to utilize their skills and qualification significantly (Robinson, Warlow and Berridge, 2014). This will help to increase performance of the organization to great extent.  The Best utilization of human resource is the great significance of motivation.

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    As per the opinion of Cho,  Xia  and Li  motivation supports to build friendly relationship between employees and employers. Manger can give rewards and recognition for encouraging its staff members (Cho, Xia and Li, 2014). This will help to boost their energy and they will participate in each activity of the hotel. Promotion opportunities will assist to give then career growth so they will be able to stay in the organization for longer period. By this way they will perform well for the welfare of the entity. Satisfied workers will deliver best services to guests and it will help to attract more service users in the firm. According to the view of Bong and et. al, motivation is interlinked with the improvement in working process and performance of employees. People will accept changes easily and will work in modified environment easily. It will help to gain competitive advantage in such complex corporate market (Bong and et. al, 2014).

    Impact of employee motivation on customer service in hospitality industry

    It has been assessed that there is positive and negative impact of employee motivation on the services of customers within the hospitality industry. As per the view of O'Cass and Sok (2013) the positive impact of employee motivation on customer services is that motivated employees are satisfied with their job perspective within the industry that support in accomplishing the overall mission and vision of the organization. For instance, motivated employees within the organization support in rendering proper services to customers. The satisfied customers would likely to re-purchase the services of the hospitality organization in the future also. Along with this, Kandampully, Zhang and Bilgihan (2015) has also stated that motivated employees and staff also perform better services and activities within the organization that ultimately results in satisfying the customers in attaining the leisure and luxurious services.

    Despite of positive impact of employee motivation there are some negative impact also that directly impact the customer services. In the situation when motivation aspect are imperfect within the organization it may results in increasing the turnover ratio of the employees. As per the view of Kim and Lee (2013) when employee sees the other staff get motivated through different reward and recognition then in such situation staff feels demotivated towards the organization. Therefore, it would directly impact their services that are deliver to the ultimate customers.

    As per view of Solnet, Kralj and Baum (2015)customer service plays most important role in the hospitality industry where different type of services are offered to the customers as per their actual need and requirement. Further, it is well known fact that hospitality sector offers different type of services such as food, accommodation etc and without delivering such services it is not at all possible to operate efficiently in the market. Moreover, every customer has some sort of expectation from business and it can be met only when target market is served as per their requirement. Concept of service delivering is one of the most significant elements where entire hospitality sector invest large funds in order to meet with the expectations of the target market and in case if customers are not satisfied then it has adverse impact on the entire organization (Horng, Hu and Liu, 2013).

    Further, it is well known fact that employees are assigned responsibility within hospitality firm to deliver services to the customers and in case if they are not satisfied with the business environment then it has negative impact on service delivery. However argued Kim, Vandenabeele and Palidauskaite (2013)that employee motivation has direct influence on customer service as in case if business takes initiative to enhance motivation level of workforce then its impact is seen in the form of higher customer satisfaction as they are served as per their needs. Through proper interaction with target market employee understands the actual need of the customers and it is one of the most integral part in customer service. Further, employees are motivated through different means such as delivering them monetary benefits etc.

    Moreover, motivated employee always contributes in the success of business where higher efforts are applied for serving customers in effective manner. In case if any organization is not efficient enough in motivating its workforce then they do not prefer to serve customers and sometime it acts as hurdle in retaining them (Papadopoulos, Stamati and Nopparuch, 2013). The relationship between employee motivation and customer service is direct when larger efforts are applied in enhancing motivation level then quality of customer service is quite high as expected by the target market. In short without focusing on employee motivation no business can survive in the market and it acts as hurdle in accomplishment of desired goals and objectives. Employees within hospitality firms are motivated by undertaking different theories such as maslow, Herzberg etc which allows management in understanding their actual need and they are able to serve customers in better manner (Chan, K. W. and Wan, 2012).

    From the above literature review it has been stated that employee motivation plays significant role within the organization as it support them in performing their activities in effective manner that assist in rendering adequate services to their customers so that in future they may engage in the repeat purchasing of their activities. In order to attain competitiveness as well as success of the company in the competing environment employee motivation plays significant role as it support the staff in rendering effective services within the establishment. On the other hand, it has been also assessed that employee motivation plays significant role within the organization as it prompt and drive the staff to perform effective services so that it may results in satisfying the customers. Along with this, it has been also assessed that there is both positive as well as negative impact of the employee motivation on the services that they rendered or deliver to the customers.

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